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Working, Resting, And!

The History of Salvation of the World 1

God, the Father in the Old Testament



Lesson 1 Who am I?

Lesson 2 I am!

Lesson 3 I have surely seen the affliction of My people

Lesson 4 If you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant

Lesson 5 God saw that it was good

Lesson 6 Let Us make man in Our image

Lesson 7 Where are you?

Lesson 8 You are the man

Lesson 9 Am I my brother's keeper?

* Let's review "I have lived as this!"

Lesson 10 All is vanity

Lesson 11 Let the day perish on which I was to be born

The History of Salvation of the World 2

Our Lord, Jesus Christ in the New Testament

Lesson 12 Be it done to me according to your word

Lesson 13 As a sign for you: you will find a baby wrapped in cloths, and lying in a manger

Lesson 14 Did you not know that I had to be in My Father's house?

Lesson 15 This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased

Lesson 16 Man shall live on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God

Lesson 17 The Lord's Spirit is upon Me, to preach the gospel to the poor

Lesson 18 Zaccheus, hurry, come down, for today I must stay at your house

Lesson 19 Talitha Kum

Lesson 20 Blessed are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven

Lesson 21 Seek first His kingdom and His righteousness

Lesson 22 Son of mine was dead, and has come to life again

Lesson 23 Follow me!

Lesson 24 I am the bread of Life

Lesson 25 Take courage, it is I; do not be afraid

Lesson 26 Thy will be done, On earth as it is in heaven

Lesson 27 I am the resurrection, the life

Lesson 28 Who do you say that I am?

Lesson 29 Take me whom will be given up for you, Do this in memory of me

Lesson 30 Father, forgive them

Lesson 31 Peace be with you

Lesson 32 Stay with us

Lesson 33 Men of Galilee, why do you?

The History of Salvation of the World 3

The Holy Spirit in the Church

Lesson 34 God has made Him both Lord and Christ - this Jesus whom you crucified

Lesson 35 God is love

Lesson 36 The blood of martyrs is the seed of christians

Lesson 37 The history of the Indian Catholic Church

Lesson 38 Men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another

Lesson 39 Unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God

Lesson 40 Go and do the same

Lesson 41 Mary, Our mother

Lesson 42 Continuing in the temple, breaking bread and praising God.

Lesson 43 Rerum Novarum

Lesson 44 Laborem Exercens

Family creates peace of human family

Peace with God the Creator, peace with all of creation


Addendum 1 Common prayers

Addendum 2 Body of Christ - Amen

Addendum 3 I forgive you

Addendum 4 Lord, here I am!

* Let's review - "God takes care of me!"

Addendum 5 Let's meet the priest

Addendum 6 Baptism

Addendum 7 Cannon

Addendum 8 One young worker is more precious than all the gold in the world


This book is intended as a help for workers in finding the Lord easily in their working place through the word of scripture so that they can evangelize both themselves and their working place. It is in accord fully with Catholic Teaching.

This textbook can be a guide which workers themselves may use to teach catechumens or to share their lives with their fellows. Thus they can discover the Lord in their daily lives and be lay apostles for him. This book can also be used for education courses for YCWCWM and for reeducation of christian workers.

The doctrinal development of this textbook

The first part deals with the way in which God has shown His love for man and how He has revealed Himself to him in Old Testament times.

The second part deals with God's plan to send His only Son, Jesus, as a man into the world, to found the kingdom of God. This Jesus did by His preaching, His death on the Cross for sinful men/women and by His rising from the dead.

The third part deals with the Jesus who overcame the power of death, saved man/woman, ascended and is with His people through the Holy Spirit whom He and the Father sent on the apostles, to enable them build and lead Church.

And Church was founded by the Lord, to continue His mission in this world, to show the love of the Father for the completion of the kingdom of God. Manifesting the Kingdom is itself a 'Sacrament'. Through the good Samaritan as a example of Christian living it shows the reality of such living. This section also contains teaching on liturgy and the Church's Social Principles.

You can sing a hymn before the lesson, then memorize and prepare the lesson by praying from the beginning to the end of 'Common Prayers' in addendum 1, and by reading the 'KEY POINT' of today's lesson twice. Next let each participant read one verse of the 'WORD' of scripture and let the last man say, "This is the word of the Lord " (if reading the Gospel, "This is the gospel of the Lord."). To this the participants respond "Thanks be to God" (or, "Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ."). Then let each participant read one point of the 'LEARNING' one by one. Next, listen to the explanation of the leader (or priest or religious) and then repeat the same process of reading. Allow time for questions and answers. After this, let each one read a verse of the 'WORD' and prepare for 'SHARING' (about 1015 minutes). Share. and consult the 'GLOSSARY' (if necessary.) After the lesson, before returning home, each of those who participated or, if preferred, one who has participated in each lesson, shares in 'PRAYER.'

It is best if each group consists of 56 persons who are prepared to share deeply and sincerely their lives with each other. If there are many participants the leader can proceed to 'the KEY POINT, WORD and LEARNING' with participants. Then forming the groups by age/job, let them read the 'WORD' again, and do 'SHARING' (including the 'SEE', 'JUDGE', 'ACT'). Finally all return, the leader synthesizes and consults the 'GLOSSARY' (if necessary.) and proceeds to the 'PRAYER.'

Sometimes one can feel bored because of the constant repetition in this course. This is because its purpose is "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name." (Jn 20,31) But if you reflect deeply on the relevance of the main point of each lesson to your daily lives, you can feel the word of the Lord anew, be glad, and be reborn each time.

Notice that the important verses of scripture are in heavy type. This is in case they might not be noticed in the more lengthy passages. I hope you will become a messenger of the Gospel who has consolation and hope by having the word of the Lord written on your own heart, albeit one verse each day.

Although you can select the main lessons if you think this course is too long, it is best if all can be studied fully, especially in "the history of salvation Part 2 (Our Lord, Jesus Christ in New Testament)." Please have meditations or contemplative prayer using the scriptures in some quiet place or in the chapel at the end of each lesson.

You can use this textbook other ways. For example, begin with 'the Lord's Prayer' or a hymn. Next, meditate for a few minutes and share the verse which is most meaningful to you.

By sharing such a verse you can relate it to the daily events of life and so come to realize the relevance of scripture to daily living. And so you can write the word of the our Lord in your heart.

Then you can realize 'Jesus' order how you should live' and feel the Lord is with you and how He becomes a power in your life.

You can meditate or contemplate the scriptures deeply by following this course, thus:

1. Ask the Holy Spirit to come upon you

"Come, O Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful"

"and kindle in them the fire of your love."

"Send forth your Spirit, and they shall be created."

"And you will renew the face of the earth.

2. "Meditate, praying 'the Lord's Prayer'

3. Read the text of the scripture in a loud voice which you can hear and ponder the contents of it.

4. Read it again, and draw the place (or background, scene) which the scripture directed. to your heart.

5. Read a third time and put characters of that scripture into the scene which you drew, (put yourself also into that scene) and see their actions, listen to their words and share your own with them.

6. Participate in the action of the scripture, meet God, the Lord, share with Him and have a relationship with Him.

(*You should receive the grace of the Lord as long as you can stay in and feel the joy of being with Him)

7. Pray thanks be to the Lord after meeting with Him.

8. Close with 'the Lord's prayer.'

I offer this book to priests, sisters and lay apostles acting as animators, and also to the members of Young Christian Workers and Christian Workers Movements who are endeavoring to evangelize the workers.

I thank Fr. Charles Stephen who is endeavoring to evangelize the workers. Also I thank Fr. Paul Kenny and Mrs. Beth Ray(in 2004) who helped with my English.

on Aug. 15th 1993 Assumption of Holy Mary

Rev. Peter Heungbo Shim




Content of each lesson



Self introduction, Catholic Church, the Parish

Mt 11,28-30


Introduction of one's self-experience of God

Is 43,1-7


Exodus-God is within human history

Ex 3,6-15


Ten commandment - the way to God

Ex 19,4-6; 20,1-17


Creation1-God created the world through the word

Gn 1,1-2,4a


Creation2-God created us in his image.

Gn 2,4b-9,15.-25


Human Sin (original and actual)

Gn 2,5-17; 3,4-24


Prophet-preaching the word of God at that time and place

2Sa 12, 1-15



Changing the idea of God and life, to a correct one.

How God has been with us in our lives.

Gn 4,1-5.8-11a

Ps 139,1-18.23-24


God is beyond the thought and experience of human beings.

Qo 1, 2; 3,1-22


Suffering that brings salvation

Job 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 38, 40, 42


Annunciation-foretelling the birth of the savior, humility

Lk 1,26-37


The birth in poverty of the savior-shepherd; the wise men

Lk 2,1-16;

Mt 2,1-12


Youth of Jesus-walking the human's way; the gospel of labor

Lk 2,41-52


Baptism-following the will of God

Jn 1,29-34


Temptations-arguments concerning the method of salvation

Mt 4,1-11


The mission of the Savior-preaching the good news to the poor

Lk 4,16-22


Conversion-being changed by the love of God-new birth

Lk 19,11-10


Jesus, the lord of life-Showing the beginnings of the kingdom of God through the miracles

Lk 18,15-17;

Mk 56,38-43;

Jn 5,1-9


The Beatitudes (Real happiness)

Mt 5,3-12


The priority of the kingdom of God; The building of it.

Mt 6,25-34;

Mk 4,30-


God's endless and merciful love

Lk 15,11-32


The call as a disciple and apostle to serve others

* The lay apostleship

Mk 1,16-18; 3,13-19

Mt 20, 26b-28


The bread of life

Exo 16,4.31.35;

Lk 9,12-17;Jn 6,5-66


The Lord!-ruling over nature and saving us.

Mt 14, 22-33


The Lord's Prayer

Mt 6, 7-15


Jesus, the resurrection and the life

Jn 11,3-44


The background of the passion-profession of the identity and faith

Mt 16,13-23


The sacrifice for the salvation of human

- The Last Supper

Ex 12,1-27;

1Co 11,23-26; Lk 23,34.46


The passion and the death of the Lord

Lk 22,39-23,54


The Lord was risen again

Mt 28,1-10


The Lord appeared to the disciples

Lk 24,13-35


Ascension of the Lord, everlasting faith

Acts 1,7-11


The Pentecost and the Church

Ac 2,1-13.36.41b-47


The Triune God

1Jn 4,7-21


The history of the world Catholic Church

Lk 22,34-36


The history of the Indian Catholic Church


Sacrament 1

Jn 13,34-35


Sacrament 2 - the seven sacraments


Sacrament 3 - the sacramental lives : acting of the love

Lk 10,25-37


Holy Mary

Jn 1,43-46; 2,1-11


The liturgical lives

Ac 2,46-47a


The principal of the Social doctrine

-The social doctrine of the Church

Rerum Novarum


The view of labor of the Catholic Church

Laborem Exercens


The family lives


The relationship with the nature

Ro 8,19-25


The common prayer




Confession-the reconciliation sacrament



The retreat for Baptism

The one who lead me-My life in the view of the gospel

Jn 13,4-8.12.15 Ps 8






The Cannon


The Lay apostolic Association-Y.C.W.* C.W.M.)





The History of Salvation of the World 1

God, the Father

in the Old Testament

Lesson 1 Who am I?

KEY POINT Seeing each other (Greeting and Introduction)

LEARNING Introduction of the Indian Catholic Church and parish

1. The Catholic Church is the community of the men/women who believe that God is love; that God loves them so much that He sent His only Son, Jesus who died on a Cross to save them. These men/women want to live this faith.

2. The Indian Catholic Church is composed of :

3. dioceses, parishes and bishops (cardinals Rev. bishops ), priests , brothers and sisters believers .

4. Now the local ordinary of my diocese is (Rev.) Bishop

5. I am in The Indian Catholic Diocese of ______________________________________ ; parish of _______________________________________________________. This is located (Address) __________________________________________________________________

This parish was established

Patron of this parish is St.

(His/Her feast day is

6. The Pastor of My parish is Fr. ____________________ (__________________),

assistant priests are ____________________ (_______________),

____________________ ( _______________),

____________________ ( _______________),

____________________ ( _______________),

WORD Come to me (Mt 11,28-30)

11 28Come to Me, all who are weary and heavy-laden, and I will give you rest. 29Take My yoke upon you, and learn from Me, for I am gentle and humble in heart; and you shall find rest for your souls. 30For My yoke is easy, and My load is light.

SHARING Let's greet each other!

My name is

(My christian name is ____________________________.)

My nickname is

I was born on .

I work in ____________________ office or factory and do

My grandfather's name (and christian name), age and job is

My grandmother's name (and christian name), age and job is

My father's name (and christian name), age and job is

My mother's name (and christian name) is, age and job is

I live in (Address)

I live with (Family)

(My telephone number is ____________________________ )

I like

My favorite food is

I don't like

I want to do

My best friend is

The ones who help me most are

The motives from which I come to Church are

I read the word above and remember that

A question is the expression of interest. Please question me without any hesitation on anything you want to know.


We will meet day hour minute every week and share our lives in the light of the words of scripture. we will search out what way the Lord wants to lead us in our lives.

If you will be absent or late for any meeting, please inform (call) me before hand.

If you are in course for Baptism, you should participate in the Mass every Sunday (the day of the Lord). The Mass times are as follows;











(Anticipated Sunday Mass)

PRAYER The Sign of Cross

"In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen."


Father God Yahweh

Son Our Lord Jesus Christ who is the Son of the Father.

The Holy Spirit the spirit of the Father, the spirit of the risen Christ.

Matthew the name of the author of the first Gospel, ie. the Good News which describes the words, acts and love of Jesus.

Diocese regional and administrative basic unit of Church

Parish a community within a diocese of the Church

Mission Station a group unit and a building in which priest is not yet resident and smaller than a parish

Patron an ancestor (saint or blessed man/woman) of faith whom an individual or group respect and ask to protect him/her or or them. As for an individual his patron's name is his christian name or Baptismal name. The word can also mean "Patron Saint" or "Patron angel".

Priest clergy, sacerdos

Brother/Sister religious man/woman of Catholic Church

Lay(man) believer who is not a priest or sister.

Mass Sacrifice and Feast which remembers and reacts to Christ's death on the Cross and the resurrection of Jesus to save mankind.

Catechumens one who is preparing for Baptism and to be a believer in Christ.

Baptism ceremony in which the catechumen is reborn in the Lord. (cf. the Sacrament)

Preach explain the faith and encourage its belief and practice.

Missionary one who preaches the faith in a country which is still non-christian.

Martyr one who was killed in defense of his/her beliefs


Lesson 2 I am!

KEY POINT Examining how God was always with me during the happy and sad moments of my life until now. Try to feel God's love.

WORD You are honored and I love you (Isa 43,1-7)

43 1But now, thus says

the Lord, your Creator, O Jacob,

And He who formed you, O Israel,

"Do not fear, for I have redeemed you;

I have called you by name; you are Mine!

2When you pass through the waters, I will be with you;

And through the rivers, they will not overflow you.

When you walk through the fire, you will

not be scorched, Nor will the flame burn you.

3For I am the Lord your God,

The Holy One of Israel, your Savior;

I have given Egypt as your ransom,

Cush and Seba in your place.

4Since you are precious in My sight,

(Since) you are honored and I love you,

I will give (other) men in your place

and (other) peoples in exchange for your life.

5Do not fear, for I am with you;

I will bring your offspring from the east,

And gather you from the west.

6I will say to the north,

'Give (them) up!'

And to the south,

'Do not hold {them} back.'

Bring My sons from afar,

And My daughters from the ends of the earth,

7Everyone who is called by My name,

And whom I have created for My glory,

Whom I have formed, even whom I have made."

SHARING Introducing yourself, and your experience of God

1. Is there any word of the scripture which interests you? What (things or happenings) do you remember from your past?

2. What are your happy or sad moments?

(When, Where, Who was with you? Let's share those!)

3. Is there any unusual event in which you felt God was with me?

4. The special thing which You want to tell us about yourself.

PRAYER The Lord's Prayer

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name;

Thy kingdom come;

Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.

Give us this day our daily bread;

and forgive us our trespasses

as we forgive those who trespass against us;

and lead us not into temptation,

but deliver us from evil.


NEXT "You receive as much as you share!"

Let's share continuously.

Let's listen to the presentation of our companions and feel how God is with them in their lives.


Isaiah name of a prophet, The prophet is not a fortuneteller but a man of God who preached his word at that time and that place.

The Lord's Prayer prayer which was taught by Jesus.


Lesson 3 I have surely seen

the affliction of My people

KEY POINT God saves us by being with us. He does not ignore our difficulties and sufferings. He sees, hears and knows all. So He gives us hope and power and saves us.

LEARNING The Exodus first meeting in which Israel knew God as their Lord and believed in Him.

1. The history of the Patriarchs God is with us and comes into our lives.

Joseph-one among the 12 sons of Jacob-is sold into Egypt because his elder brothers hate him. Joseph interpreted a dream of the king of Egypt and as a result became premier. There came a drought in Israel; his elder brothers came to Egypt in search of food. They met their younger brother Joseph again and were reconciled with each other. And Israel emigrated to Egypt and lived there happily, working hard.

2. The Exodus - Passover

Long times passed after that, and the Israelites became numerous because God blessed them. Then Egypt made the Israelites their slaves and gave them a hard time. The Israelites who lived as slaves were persecuted and so asked God to help them. God had seen the humiliation of Israel in Egypt and He heard their cry when they were cruelly treated by their taskmasters. He knew their suffering. He gave hope to Israel. God came down to free them from the power of the Egyptians and to bring them up from that land to a beautiful, spacious land (Canaan), a land flowing with milk and honey.

3. God, Yaweh showed Himself to Moses to inform Him that His name was, "The One who said of Himself 'I AM WHO I AM.'"

"It is I(I am!)" (Don't be afraid of me.) - Jesus says this when He comforted the disciples in the New Testament. (Jn 6, 20 reference)

4. God, Yaweh, gave the power and ministry of liberating the Israelites from king Pharaoh of Egypt to Moses and his cousin Aron (representative of Moses). Pharao did not accept the demand of Moses. God punished Egypt by sending 10 disasters, including the killing of the firstborn of animals and men/women. (Passover - GLOSSARY reference) And then Egyptians allowed the Israelite to go the desert and to adore God.

5. But Egyptians followed them to dominate the Israelites again. (You can see in the Egyptians' selfish mind, (not of the community,) the tendency for the evil in you.) The Israelites had to choose between "to die into the Red sea for freedom" or "to live as slaves of Egyptians again." Then Israelite chose the freedom of God by throwing themselves into the Red Sea but God saved Israel by dividing the Red Sea into two parts so that the Israelites escaped from the Egyptians by walking across on dry land.

WORD Escaping from the slavery in Egypt (Ex 3,6-15)

3 6God said also, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." Then Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God. 7And the Lord said, "I have surely seen the affliction of My people who are in Egypt, and have given heed to their cry because of their taskmasters, for I am aware of their sufferings. 8So I have come down to deliver them from the power of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a good and spacious land, to a land flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite. 9And now, behold, the cry of the sons of Israel has come to Me; furthermore, I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians are oppressing them. 10Therefore, come now, and I will send you to Pharaoh, so that you may bring My people, the sons of Israel, out of Egypt." 11But Moses said to God, "Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring the sons of Israel out of Egypt?" 12And He said, "Certainly I will be with you, and this shall be the sign to you that it is I who have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall worship God at this mountain." 13Then Moses said to God, "Behold, I am going to the sons of Israel, and I shall say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you.' Now they may say to me, 'What is His name?' What shall I say to them?" 14And God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM"; and He said, "Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, 'I AM has sent me to you.'" 15And God, furthermore, said to Moses, "Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, 'The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.' This is My name forever, and this is My memorial-name to all generations."


1. What did God do when He saw the suffering of his people?

2. What hope did God give the suffering people?

3. What is the name of God who appeared to Moses and the people of Israel?

4. Can you feel the calling of the Lord when you see your fellows who are suffering?


1. What are those things that make my life difficult, sad?

1) in my home or dormitory :

2) in my factory, office or working place :

3) in society, among friends and fellows :


1. Does God know our difficulties?

2. What kind of hope will God give me?

1) in my home or dormitory :

2) in my factory, office or working place :

3) in society, among friends and fellows :

ACT Let's each resolve one easy way of realizing, in response to God's call, the hope that God has given us.

NEXT Let's think what we shall fix in our mind and keep to the end of our lives.

PRAYER Let's thank God one by one!


Moses The meaning of Moses 'being saved from the water'. He was Hebrew intended to be a son-in-law of the princess of Egypt and so he was saved from the order which the king of Egypt gave to kill all the male Hebrew, children at birth. Afterwards, he came to know he was a Hebrew and kill an Egyptian who persecuted his tribe. To escape being discovered, Moses fled to 'Midian' and became a shepherd of the chief of the tribe of 'Reuel'. His wife is 'Zipporah' and his son is 'Gershom'. (Ex 1, 2 chapter reference).

Pharao the king of Egypt (whose power oppressed men/women in O.T.)

Abraham Ancestor of faith in the history of Israel. His name was changed from 'Abram' to 'Abraham' and was called by God, to be the father of a multitude of nations. (Gn 17 reference - His wife 'Sarai' to 'Sarah').

Isaac the son of Abraham when he was 100 years old. (Gn 21, 22, 24 reference). Isac's wife is 'Rebekah'.

Jacob the son of 'Isac', the younger brother of 'Esau'. He gave bread and lentil stew and to buy the birthright. (Gn 25,19 the following) His wife is 'Rachel'.

Joseph Jacob's wife, Rachel conceived and bore him a son and said, "God has taken away my reproach." He is the 11th son of 12 sons of Jacob. 12 is the sign of the 12 tribes of Israel. He was loved by Jacob his father but his brothers hated him and he was sold and taken into Egypt where he became the prime minister. (Gn 29, 30, 37-50 reference).

Festival of Israel

1. Passover - A Festival which commemorates the passing over of the angel of death. When God, Yahweh, sent the 10th punishment on the Egyptians, that is, the killing of the firstborn, He didn't kill the Israelites, but passed over them on seeing the blood of the lamb on the lintel and two doorposts. So Israel was saved. It would be called the 'Pascal mystery' in the New Testament when Jesus died to save mankind and rose again. (Exo 12,1-14)

2. Feast of unleavened bread - Festival which is remembering how the Israelites came out suddenly from Egypt. They had no time to make leavened bread that would not spoil on their journey. (Ex 12, 15-20; 12, 34 reference).

3. Pentecost - Festival which is remembering Israel's first harvest in Canaan. A feast of thanksgiving to God. This festival would be changed in Church to remembering the Holy Spirits coming upon the apostles.


Lesson 4 If you will indeed obey

My voice and keep My covenant

KEY POINT The commandment (TORAH - the way) which God gave us to keep is that of love itself. And the way of love is just the perfection and salvation of each man/woman.

LEARNING Ten Commandments Covenant with God; the way to God

God did not lead Israel to the promised Canaan immediately on liberation from Egypt. He educated and proved "Who it was who liberated them?", "What shall the saved people do and how shall they live?" "How do they live not as slaves again?" He gave them Ten commandments to be kept.

The key contents of the Ten commandments (or regulations) are "firstly love God who suffered with us and saved us, and secondly love your neighbors by the same love with which God has loved us."

1. I, the Lord, am your God. You shall not have other gods besides me. (God who is the basis of all human dignity and equality)

1) Idolatry : Thinking that anything giving material benefits is more important than loving and following God and His will. And acting accordingly - such as money, power, safety, success, joy, beauty, health, happiness etc. Though necessary up to a point these can become idols that change our life if we cling, to them.)

* Because God saved us we should adore God. Because God saved us we should not be dominated by others and try to dominate others. Set God and the will of God first in our lives.

2) Thinking oneself more important than God and His commandments. (eg - hating a person just because he disagrees with me. Doing what I want rather than what God wants.)

2. You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain.

Using the name or God in an oath or promise when we are telling a lie for our own benefit. ie. making God a liar. Living in the name of the Christ means manifesting Christ in our lives. (eg - "If I tell a lie, I swear by the name of God.")

3. Remember to keep holy the Lord's day.

1) Lord's day (Sunday) is the day of remembering God. We thank God on this day for helping us to live well during the past week; and celebrate the Mass and pray to God to help us live joyful and good lives in the coming week.

2)This day is also for rest.

3)We should visit and greet and help our grandparents and parents and neighbors and poor friends on this day.

4. Honor your father and your mother.

My parents give me the word of God. And they feed me in God's place. Therefore I, a son/daughter of God, should respect my parents, who represent God, and I should love and listen carefully to what they say to me. obedience, respect and love.

And parents should show the model of faith and good lives to their children.

5. You shall not kill.

God made man. And man was made in the image of God. Therefore I should love everybody. If I hate and speak against anyone, it will be the same as hating and speaking against God. Though someone thinks differently or disagrees with me, I should not hate or ignore or speak evil against them. I should respect them.

And not helping neighbors is the same as pretending not to know God. And doing injustice and immorality for one's benefit causes hunger and a vicious circle of poverty and structured evil. So that is the same as indirect killing.

6. You shall not commit adultery.

To protect the marriage lives of one man to one woman in society, and to share personal love rather than use sexuality solely for pleasure. Not to ignore the right of humans and the dignity of life. Not to kill the infant conceived out of wedlock or from lust. And to bear the fruit of true love by trying to wait one's time.

Don't be angry because my friend likes someone else more than me. Let's love each other. And in the future when I will marry, I should know that God asks me to be faithful to my wife or husband.

7. You shall not steal.

God gives us freedom and other things which are necessary for us. So If anyone takes another's possessions without telling him/her or does not give him/her what is his/hers, it is the same as ignoring and snatching the freedom and love of God.

This commandment is not only to prohibit the buying and selling of a man/woman and kidnapping which are caused by one's desire and violate personal rights and private freedom but also to restrict the right of possession - or proprietorship (except the right to life). This occurs on a sabbatical, which is every seventh year. The land must be left fallow. A jubilee. year on which is the fiftieth year, man must be free of any possessions and domination. This is a rule to give life to the poor and injured again. - Lev 25,1-53 reference)

8. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

Do not damage anyone by telling a lie for my own benefits or protection. Do not blame someone else for what is my fault. Because man/woman is an image of God.

9. 10. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife. nor anything that belongs to your neighbor.

Even though I have difficulties, I should thank God and I should respect and love my grandfather and grandmother, parents, and brothers and sisters who live with me, friends and neighbors, too. Remember all I really need is the blessing and love of God. I should not want what other people have. I should be happy with and thank God for the relations, friends and things that I have already. "God, please care for and love my father and my mother!"

Remember what is necessary for me is not fulfilling my own desire but the blessing and love of God and controling myself and personal growth.

And try to cast out the devil in you and me but don't hate others.

"Rejoice always, pray without ceasing and give thanks to God at every moment. This is the will of God, your vocation as Christians." (1Thess 5,16-18) When we walk the way of the Ten Commandments remembering, "Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven", then the individual and the community are both living out God's will.

WORD Ten Commandment (Ex 19,4-6; 20,1-17)

19 4"You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and {how} I bore you on eagles' wings, and brought you to Myself. 5Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine; 6and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel."

20 1Then God spoke all these words, saying, 2"I am the \Lord\ your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. 3You shall have no other gods before Me. 4You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth. 5You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me, 6but showing loving kindness to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.

7You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not leave him unpunished who takes His name in vain.

8Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10but the seventh day is a sabbath of the Lord your God; (in it) you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you. 11For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy.

12Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be prolonged in the land which the \Lord\ your God gives you.

13You shall not murder.

14You shall not commit adultery.

15You shall not steal.

16You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

17You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife or his male servant or his female servant or his ox or his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor."


1. Why did not God lead Israel directly to Canaan but through the Sinai desert?

2. What will Israel be if they listen to the word of God and follow the commandment of God?

3. What is the key content of the Ten Commandments?

4. Is there any word of the scripture which especially interests you?

SEE Which one of the ten commandments is ignored by me or by society? Let's share with explanation and by examples.

JUDGE Why is this? And What shall we do?

ACT Let's promise to do what I can do for setting this right.

NEXT What is it that gives life or death?

PRAYER Let's each pray to thank God one by one!"


Lesson 5 God saw that it was good

KEY POINT God, The Creator, created through the Word.

LEARNING Creation of everything in the world 1 God created the world through the Word.

1. "God said, 'Let there be .' it happened just as he said." God created everything from nothing through the "Word."

2. God created everything in this world to share life.

3. The Bible is not intended to show how the world was made. This is the work of scientists and historians. The Bible is the truth of faith revealing who made the world.

The account of creation is different in Genesis chapter 1 verse 9 to chapter 2 verse 4a (creating by the word) from that in Genesis chapter 2 verse 4b to verse 25. (creation forming man of dust from the ground, and breathing into his nostrils the breath of life) This is written not to correct the difference, but to show that the bible is intended to teach not the method of creation but its cause.

4. Revelation of Genesis The key content of Genesis.

1) God is the Creator. - God created everything seperately each other and to suit the aim of them through the word of God, "Let there be "

2) Everything which was created is good. Whenever God saw what He created, He said, "It was good." Therefore all that God created are good and has good aims and directions.

3) Man/Woman is also the creation of God. When God created man/woman He gave them His image to rule over according to the will of God. So even though it is not complete man/woman should remember and review the mind, thoughts and love of God to rule over himself and the world.

4) The thing which is created good should be used good. Everything ise of God and we have only the propriety of control during the time we live on this earth. Therefore, when man/woman rules over he/she should seek and judge always the will of God and follow the aim and will which He created.

5) The world is ruled over by God. God rules over this world. Therefore man/woman cannot assign blame because the world is not fulfilled according to his/her will. Because the lord of the world is not man./woman but God. Of course, everything which happens in this world will be fulfilled according to the will of God.

5. Writers of the Bible emphasize "God is most high god" through Genesis.

Genesis says gods who were adored by Egyptians and Babylonians and who had dominated the Israelites, are only creations which were created by Our God.

In this revelation is attached the profession of faith, "Even though the power and the tribes who have the power are seen to rule over the word, it is never thus! The one who rules over the world is God. He chooses the weakest tribe to show his glory. So whoever sees Israel, the weak tribe, live well and be strong shall say, "Yaweh is true god!"

WORD God created the world (Gn 1,1-2,4a)

1 1In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2And the earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters.

3Then God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light.

4And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. 5And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.

6Then God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters." 7And God made the expanse, and separated the waters which were below the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so. 8And God called the expanse heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.

9Then God said, "Let the waters below the heavens be gathered into one place, and let the dry land appear"; and it was so. 10And God called the dry land earth, and the gathering of the waters He called seas; and God saw that it was good.

11Then God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed,( and) fruit trees bearing fruit after their kind, with seed in them, on the earth"; and it was so. 12And the earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, with seed in them, after their kind; and God saw that it was good. 13And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.

14Then God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years; 15and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth ";and it was so. 16And God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night; (He made) the stars also. 17And God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18and to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good. 19And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.

20Then God said, "Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens." 21And God created the great sea monsters, and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good. 22And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth." 23And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.

24Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind: cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth after their kind"; and it was so. 25And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.

26Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." 27And God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28And God blessed them; and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth."

29Then God said, "Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; 30and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and to every thing that moves on the earth which has life, (I have given) every green plant for food ";and it was so. 31And God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

2 1Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. 2And by the seventh day God completed His work which He had done; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. 3Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made. 4This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created,


1. Who created the world we are living in?

2. Who is the Lord of the world?

3. What did God say after He created the world?

4. What is best among God's creation?

5 Why is man best?

6. What is the job/work (role) God gave man?

7. What did God do on the seventh day after creating the world?

8. Is there any word of the scripture account which struck you?


1. What is your job/occupation? Do you feel pride in your work, as God did, when you look back on it?

2. What is it that gives life today to the world that God made?

And, on the other hand, let's share what kills life today.

JUDGE What does God say when he sees this situation?

ACT How can you participate in giving life to the world?

What can you do to work and live more meaningfully?

Let's act as if there is something we can do along these lines.

NEXT Who are you? And why were you born?

PRAYER Let's thank God, one by one!


A child questioned.

"Why are you angry?"

"Well, none of my plans come to fulfillment."

"Oh! How about buying the world! Buy the world."

"What?! Are you crazy? Don't say that."

"Crazy me? Who is crazy? It is common sense that since you did not make the world everything will not turn out to your liking."



Lesson 6 Let Us make man in Our image

KEY POINT God put His image (thought, mind, love) into man/woman. And God made us to rule over the world. And He calls us continuously to make and save the world with Him.

LEARNING Creation 2 God created us in His image, according to His likeness.

1. God created man/woman to be in harmony with the world.

1) Man/woman should be in harmony with God, who is the Lord of life. To be in such harmony is to thank God and follow His word.

2) Man/woman should harmonize their body and spirit to become fully human. "For we are the temple of the living God; just as God said, 'I will dwell in them and walk among them; And I will be their God, and they shall be My people.'" (2Co 6,16)

3) Man/woman should harmonize with their neighbors. When God created man/woman, He did not intend him/her to be alone but to live with and help each other. A neighbor is a gift of God. So we should accept with joy that God gave neighbors. Let's confess with humility that it is through my neighbors that my weakness is revealed and that it is through them that God's grace comes to me.

4) Man/woman should harmonize with all creatures. So, in using nature you should use it according to God's plan.

2. God calls us as companions and helpers in the creation and salvation of the world.

People marry and bear children through the mutual love of husband and wife. They continue the creation of God by making new things by their hard work. So we must be helpers of God, the Creator. And through the love for our neighbor we will be a helper who lets the love of God be shown in this earth. When Jesus will come again on the last day, our efforts will be complete and we will live in 'New Heaven and New Earth.'

WORD God created man/woman (Gn 2,4b-9.15-25)

2 4bIn the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven. 5Now no shrub of the field was yet in the earth, and no plant of the field had yet sprouted, for the Lord God had not sent rain upon the earth; and there was no man to cultivate the ground. 6But a mist used to rise from the earth and water the whole surface of the ground. 7Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.

8And the Lord God planted a garden toward the east, in Eden; and there He placed the man whom He had formed. 9And out of the ground the Lord God caused to grow every tree that is pleasing to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

15Then the Lord God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it. 16And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; 17but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you shall surely die."

18Then the Lord God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for him." 19And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky, and brought (them) to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name. 20And the man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky, and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him. 21So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh at that place. 22And the Lord God fashioned into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man. 23And the man said, "This is now bone of my bones, And flesh of my flesh; She shall be called Woman, Because she was taken out of Man." 24For this cause a man shall leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and they shall become one flesh. 25And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. How should you live in the world God created?

1) Relation with God -

2) Relation with yourself -

3) Relation with the neighbor -

4) Relation with nature -


1. When God created man He breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being. Do you live actively by receiving the spirit of God?

2. Do you love, know, and take care of your neighbors and things around you?

3. What type of partner would you like to meet?

JUDGE Why don't you live actively and satisfyingly?

ACT How must you change to live joyfully and to help your neighbors to do the same?

NEXT What must you do if you want to be a better person from now on?

PRAYER Let's thank God one by one!


Lesson 7 Where are you?

KEY POINT Man/Woman can live as a man/woman only if he/she is with God. When Adam and Eve disobeyed God and refused his love, They lost full humanity. This was a sin and a punishment.

LEARNING Sin the breaking of good relations with God, fellow man/woman, nature and oneself.

1. Sin and Death

1) The first human sin was that of pride.

The serpent tempted Eve, "You will be as God if you will eat the fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil even though you are created by God" Adam and Eve were proud. (They wanted to be as God.) They wanted to think perfectly, to have and to rule over everything as God does.

Therefore they ate the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil on the temptation of the serpent. But they did not have the power and right to rule over everything completely like God. Rather they came to know shame (being naked). At that time they knew to disobey the Will of God, was sinful. And they were afraid so they hid themselves and ran far from God.

2) imputation of responsibility 'excuse'

God questioned, their answers, "Not because of me but you", not in fault but the tempter's (ie. Satan).

3) punishment as a result of sin deprivation of harmony

God punished man, woman and the serpent. The serpent which tempted Adam and Eve must henceforth go on its belly and eat dust until it dies. The woman's pain will greatly multiply in childbirth, In pain she shall bring forth children; Yet her desire shall be for her husband, and he shall rule over her." The man shall eat the plants of the field; by the sweat of his brow he shall eat bread, till he return to the earth, because from it he was taken; For he is dust, And to dust he must return.

In punishment to Adam, Gad cast out from Eden Adam and Eve and condemned them to a life of toil and suffering ending in death.

But God forgave the man/woman because He is merciful.

Though Adam and Eve were free to eat and live anywhere in the garden of Eden, they were not free anymore. They must now work hard in order to eat. Work is not naturally something joyful but it can be changed to be so for the purpose of salvation.

2. The result of sin

1) Sin breaks the harmony with God.

- Meet God with fear and trembling

- Hide from God.

- Leave God.

2) Sin breaks the harmony with fellow man/woman and nature.

- Eve (human being) blamed and cursed the serpent (nature).

- Adam (human being) blamed and cursed Eve (fellow human being).

3) Sin breaks the harmony within human beings themselves.

- Human beings, Adam and Eve, lost the happiness which they had.

- Human being must now work hard in order to live.

- Human being lost his life (killed himself).

3. The Original Sin - the social nature of man and his solidarity in original sin

1) This first sin of Adam and Eve is called the Original Sin

2) The result of this original sin (No. 2 above) is inherited. Everyone from birth lives in this world which was punished and he himself is punished too.

3) The social nature of man and his solidarity in sin Human beings tempt and are tempted by each other in society. They are harmed themselves and they harm others. So if one sins and is in the power of the devil, all around him are harmed by the evil influence of it. (eg. quarrels between a husband and wife quarrels with young children who leave home; and quarrels between a sick person and his/her sad family)

4. The infinite love and hope of God

Man was separated from God by sin but he did not cease to love him. Rather he gave mercy to him all the more. (clothing with garments of leather instead of leaf)

And God promised to send a savior to man. "He shall bruise you on the head, And you shall bruise him on the heel."(verse 15) In this verse we can see how man can be saved from sin and the power of the devil, by waiting for the savior, a descendant of woman. God gave the Good News to man like this. This first good news is called 'the Original Gospel.'

* Remarks : Cain and Abel Selfish, jealous (Gn 4,1-16)

the ark of Noah the story of deluge (Gn 6,5-8)

the tower of Babel collective selfishness (Gn 11,1-9)

WORD Man/Woman refuse the word of God (The Original Sin pride, Gn 2,15-17; 3,4-24)

2 15Then the Lord God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it. 16And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; 17but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you shall surely die."

3 4And the serpent said to the woman, "You surely shall not die! 5"For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." 6When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make (one) wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate. 7Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves loin coverings.

8And they heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden. 9Then the Lord God called to the man, and said to him, "Where are you?" 10And he said, "I heard the sound of Thee in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid myself." 11And He said, "Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?" 12And the man said, "The woman whom Thou gavest (to be) with me, she gave me from the tree, and I ate." 13Then the Lord God said to the woman, "What is this you have done?" And the woman said, "The serpent deceived me, and I ate." 14And the Lord God said to the serpent, "Because you have done this, Cursed are you more than all cattle, And more than every beast of the field; On your belly shall you go, And dust shall you eat All the days of your life; 15And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, And you shall bruise him on the heel." 16To the woman He said, "I will greatly multiply Your pain in childbirth, In pain you shall bring forth children; Yet your desire shall be for your husband, And he shall rule over you." 17Then to Adam He said, "Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree about which I commanded you, saying, 'You shall not eat from it'; Cursed is the ground because of you; In toil you shall eat of it All the days of your life. 18Both thorns and thistles it shall grow for you; And you shall eat the plants of the field; 19By the sweat of your face You shall eat bread, Till you return to the ground, Because from it you were taken; For you are dust, And to dust you shall return."

20Now the man called his wife's name Eve, because she was the mother of all (the) living. 21And the Lord God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and clothed them. 22Then the Lord God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, lest he stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever" - 23therefore the Lord God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken. 24So He drove the man out; and at the east of the garden of Eden He stationed the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every direction, to guard the way to the tree of life.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. Why did Adam disobey the command of God by eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil?

3. What happened to Adam after he ate the forbidden fruit?

4. Why did Adam hide from God?

5. What was Adam's answer to God's question: "Why did you eat?"

6. Why did God not kill Adam who disobeyed his word?

SEE . Let's review why we disobey the word of parents or commit other sins even though we know in our hearts we should not act thus? (the pang of conscience)

1) What sin?

2) Why did we do it?

3) What was the result?

4) What influence had it on our lives?


1. What is the most difficult temptation to get rid of?

2. Why were you so tempted? What was it in me that wanted to give the temptation?


1. What must you do to avoid this temptation in the future and so not sin again?

2. What must you do so that work will become not a source of punishment, ('a punishment as a result of sin') but a source of joy and pride?

NEXT What will God say when he sees our lives today?

PRAYER Let's thank God one by one!


Sin Sin is committed when one knowingly and willingly does something wrong.


Lesson 8 You are that man

KEY POINT The prophets were those who preached without any hesitation or fear of "What will God say in their situation 'now and here'?" Prophets preached the word of God in full, for their own times and in their own situation. They preached to the people about the justice and love of God even in danger of their own lives.

LEARNING Prophet one who preaches the word of God in his own time and in his own situation.

1. A prophet prophesies. Then his/her prophesy is not foretelling the future. In the scripture prophesy is to preach the word of God to the people at 'that period and that place.'

2. In the Old Testament 'king' is the representative of peoples' lives at that time. So a prophet's blame of the king is also a blame of the people.

3. Firstly when prophets were chosen by God, all of them hesitated because they, themselves were weak and unrighteous. But they received the call of God, because it was God's will. Because of their blaming of kings and people, many of them were hated and killed by the leaders and people at that time. But God gave them power and strength so that they were enabled to continue to fulfill their prophetic ministry.

4. Those who believe in God should always ask "What does God want?", "How should we live according to the word of God?" and "What shouldn't we do?" in the times in which they themselves live. This is the prophetic ministry.

When nobody says anything about the unjust society, the Church should speak out on behalf of the people. This is not interfering in politics. Silence in such circumstances is to approve of injustice.

WORD The prophet Nathan blamed David, the king. (2Sa 12,1-15)

12 1Then the Lord sent Nathan to David. And he came to him, and said,

"There were two men in one city, the one rich and the other poor. 2The rich man had a great many flocks and herds. 3But the poor man had nothing except one little ewe lamb Which he bought and nourished; And it grew up together with him and his children. It would eat of his bread and drink of his cup and lie in his bosom, And was like a daughter to him. 4Now a traveler came to the rich man, And he was unwilling to take from his own flock or his own herd, To prepare for the wayfarer who had come to him; Rather he took the poor man's ewe lamb and prepared it for the man who had come to him."

5Then David's anger burned greatly against the man, and he said to Nathan, "As the Lord lives, surely the man who has done this deserves to die. 6And he must make restitution for the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing and had no compassion." 7Nathan then said to David,

"You are the man! Thus says the Lord God of Israel, 'It is I who anointed you king over Israel and it is I who delivered you from the hand of Saul. 8I also gave you your master's house and your master's wives into your care, and I gave you the house of Israel and Judah; and if {that had been} too little, I would have added to you many more things like these! 9Why have you despised the word of the Lord by doing evil in His sight? You have struck down Uriah the Hittite with the sword, have taken his wife to be your wife, and have killed him with the sword of the sons of Ammon. 10Now therefore, the sword shall never depart from your house, because you have despised Me and have taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your wife.' 11Thus says the Lord, 'Behold, I will raise up evil against you from your own household; I will even take your wives before your eyes, and give {them} to your companion, and he shall lie with your wives in broad daylight. 12Indeed you did it secretly, but I will do this thing before all Israel, and under the sun.'"

13Then David said to Nathan, "I have sinned against the Lord." And Nathan said to David, "The Lord also has taken away your sin; you shall not die. 14"However, because by this deed you have given occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, the child also that is born to you shall surely die." 15So Nathan went to his house. Then the Lord struck the child that Uriah's widow bore to David, so that he was {very} sick.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which you struck you?

2. How should the lives of others have changed for the sake of the pleasure of one man, David?

Why should not the joy of David be a joy to others?

Why could not David's momentary pleasure continue afterwards?

SEE What will God say as he sees your life, the life of your companions or the social situation? Let's talk as if you were a prophet.


1. What should you change in your life so that God sees it is as good and more meaningful? (What is the ideal life for me?)

2. Are there any obstacles preventing you from attaining your ideal type of personal and social life? What are these obstacles? Which can you remove and which can you not remove?

ACT What should you do if you want to follow the will of God?

NEXT Who is the God you know? What do you want from Him?

PRAYER Let's thank God one by one!


David Some wisemen see him as the first official king of Israel. He is the youngest son among the 8 sons of his father, 'Jesse'. He was anointed and ordained as a king of Israel by the prophet Samuel. He was a musician in the palace of king 'Saul'. He became a general by slaying 'Goliath', the general of Buleset, with a stone. He married 'Michal', a daughter of Saul. (1Sa 16-18 reference).

Because of Saul's jealousy David fled to another part of the country as an exile but he became a king by following the will of God. (2Sa 2). David became a king to unite Judah and Israel and he ruled over it well.

After David sent his army to conquer the kings, he saw 'Bathsheba', the wife of 'Uriah' (who was a soldier), taking a bath in the yard of her house beyond the palace and he slept with her because of sexual desire. Then he called Uriah and wanted him to sleep with his wife but Uriah didn't because he should be clean in battle. So David wrote a letter to Joab, "Place Uriah in the front line of the fiercest battle and withdraw from him, so that he may be struck down and die." After the death of Uriah he took Bathsheba as one of his wives. (2Sa 11)

'Sololmon' who was born of Bathsheba will be a future king.

Nathan A prophet in David's time.


Lesson 9 Am I my brother's keeper?

KEY POINT The Israelites lived a new life in a new world after their liberation from Egypt. Whenever they experienced God, who was with them, in a new way, they again professed their belief in God.

When the child is a baby he/she thinks that parents, as parents, must be with him/her, and buy and give whatever he/she asks. But growing slowly he/she can see a new face of his/her parents. Like this, the relation of God to us is similar to that of the relation of parents to children, when they change from being protectors to companions.

LEARNING Changing ones idea of God and of life as one matures - right awareness and life of faith.

1. God, Liberator Immanuel (God who is with us.)

Israel, a small nomadic tribe, had lived always under the threat of stronger tribes. Israel could not overcome these dangers alone. But whenever God was with them they always overcame these. Therefore Israel felt God was the one to liberate them and always to be with them whenever they faced these sufferings and difficulties.

2. God, Creator, Supervisor and Savior

Israel came to know that the God who liberated them from Egypt would save them. The God who will save them created them and governs the world.

3. The God, of Mercy who knows the conditions of the poor and their oppression.

On the other hand, other tribes who saw the weakest tribe win always came to know Israel's God, ie. 'God, Winner' and 'God of War.' And when Israel immigrated to Canaan they said their god is 'judge righteous' and questioned, the other tribes "Who is your god?"

Is the basis of righteousness, the same for their society, culture and customs, or not? Does it benefit them or not? Israel reviewed their past slavery in Egypt, and they came to know that 'the righteousness of God is to have mercy on the weak and poor without any fees or conditions.

Therefore Israel professed more deeply their faith in, "Our God is righteous and just but also He looks upon the hungry, poor and weak."

*Cf. : God, the King of Israel, the Lord of armies, The ark of the covenant.

4. Changes in the life of a believer according to changes of the concept of God

Cain (After being in Canaan)

Abel (Traditional lives of Israel)


Agriculture, private working place, private income, private possession

nomadism, common workplace, common income, common possession, common sharing

the view of God

God who is just (the righteous judge)

God who is just but does not ignore the poor and the weak.

type of lives of the believing

I live by my income. "Am I my brother's (the poor) keeper?"

I should share and take care of neighbors from my income the orphan, the widow, the old, the sick and travelers

WORD God is righteous, merciful and helps the poor (Gn 4,1-5.8-11)

4 1Now the man had relations with his wife Eve, and she conceived and gave birth to Cain, and she said, "I have gotten a manchild with (the help of) the Lord." 2And again, she gave birth to his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of flocks, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. 3So it came about in the course of time that Cain brought an offering to the Lord of the fruit of the ground. 4And Abel, on his part also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of their fat portions. And the Lord had regard for Abel and for his offering; 5but for Cain and for his offering He had no regard. So Cain became very angry and his countenance fell. 8And Cain told Abel his brother. And it came about when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother and killed him.

9Then the Lord said to Cain, "Where is Abel your brother?" And he said, "I do not know. Am I my brother's keeper?" 10And He said, "What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood is crying to Me from the ground. 11And now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. Let's share the story of 'Cain and Abel.'

SEE Who is 'my God'? And have I lived according this view of God?

JUDGE What is the difference between my previous God and the God whom I have now learned about?

ACT How should I live and what should I ask of God if my God is to be the true God?

NEXT How has God been with me in my life till now?

Read 'the profile' of the next chapter, '* Let's review' and prepare to present yours.

PRAYER Let's thank God one by one!


Seth Adam had relations with his wife again; and she gave birth to a son, and named him Seth, for, (she said,) "God has appointed me another offspring in place of Abel; for Cain killed him." And to Seth, to him also a son was born; and he called his name Enoch. Then (men) began to call upon the name of the Lord. (Gn 4, 25-26).


Two men quarreled and afterwards prayed to God separately.

"God, make him (his company, his country) repent (in this point) and be a new man"

Which of the two's prayer will God grant?

If the joy of one is based on the sadness of the other, what will God want to say?

Does God exist to fulfill the greed of men/women?


*Let's review

"I have lived as this!"

KEY POINT Let's review how God has been in our past lives?

WORD (Ps 139,1-18.23-24)

139 1O Lord, Thou hast searched me and known (me.)

2Thou dost know when I sit down and when I rise up;

Thou dost understand my thought from afar.

3Thou dost scrutinize my path and my lying down,

And art intimately acquainted with all my ways.

4Even before there is a word on my tongue,

Behold, O Lord, Thou dost know it all.

5Thou hast enclosed me behind and before,

And laid Thy hand upon me.

6(Such) knowledge is too wonderful for me;

It is (too) high, I cannot attain to it.

7Where can I go from Thy Spirit?

Or where can I flee from Thy presence?

8If I ascend to heaven, Thou art there;

If I make my bed in Sheol, behold, Thou art there.

9If I take the wings of the dawn,

If I dwell in the remotest part of the sea,

10Even there Thy hand will lead me,

And Thy right hand will lay hold of me.

11If I say, "Surely the darkness will overwhelm me,

And the light around me will be night,"

12Even the darkness is not dark to Thee,

And the night is as bright as the day.

Darkness and light are alike (to Thee.)

13For Thou didst form my inward parts;

Thou didst weave me in my mother's womb.

14I will give thanks to Thee,

for I am fearfully and wonderfully made;

Wonderful are Thy works,

And my soul knows it very well.

15My frame was not hidden from Thee,

When I was made in secret,

(And) skillfully wrought in the depths of the earth.

16Thine eyes have seen my unformed substance;

And in Thy book they were all written,

The days that were ordained (for me),

When as yet there was not one of them.

17How precious also are Thy thoughts to me, O God!

How vast is the sum of them!

18If I should count them, they would outnumber the sand.

When I awake, I am still with Thee.

23Search me, O God,

and know my heart;

Try me and know my anxious thoughts;

24And see if there be any hurtful way in me,

And lead me in the everlasting way.

LEARNING Individual report 1 - How God has been in your life!

I was born on November 24th, 1965 at Kyoungju in Chungcheong-do. I was the eldest son and had two brothers and one sister. My parents were farmers, and we children went to school without difficulty, relatively. However, we were poor. Poverty made me depressed. Because we had only a little farmland, we became more and more poor. My father was very harassed, so he drank away his care and often quarreled with my mother and the neighbors. My father died when I was in the third year of high school. I thought that the cause of his death was his hard life, drink and trouble with me. My dream was to become an entertainer, but this disappointed my father. I was completely shocked by my father's death.

On graduating from high school, I went to Seoul and began to work in a small factory making clothes. The working hours there were very long, usually from 4 am to 11 or 12 pm, and I was very tired. But in those days I thought that the working conditions were normal and I had no idea of how to protest against the situation.

After 8 months of factory work, I got a job in a paper goods store and became a paperhanger. I was charmed by the process of changing a dirty room to a clean one through my own efforts. As God says "That's good." after he created the world, I felt satisfaction after papering walls and ceilings. I thought that I engaged myself in the creative activities of God. In the early days I lived at my boss' house. Soon I lived alone. I received a salary of 120,000 won.

By the way, I met a skilled paperhanger named Mr. Jin, who worked with a team. He suggested that I work with him. I hesitated because I felt responsible to my boss. He was a great help to me in my training of papering. It looked like I intended to satisfy my selfishness.

One day, my boss found fault with my work. He was very biased and never heard my explanation in full. I did my best in performing my duty, but my boss looked down on me because I was his employee and a worker. I was very upset and decided to leave.

After that, I worked with Mr. Jin. At first I learned much better skills from him, and the pay was better than in previously job. As time passed, Mr. Jin began to treat me badly, but I was patient and worked hard.

I have been in YCW since 1988. YCW members are proud of their jobs, and they know God loves them. They thank God and confide in one another. Working with them, I got to be self-confident in my job. Jesus was a worker, too. He worked as a carpenter and lived with the poor.

Of course, there were many difficulties when I act as a YCW member. First of all, because YCW had many activities, I had not much time to be with my family, so my mother was often angry with me. I often had to miss the meetings. But I could surmount many difficulties with the help of the retreats. I have sworn to be a fighter of YCW.

We say that prayer itself is life. However, do we always believe in God? Do we experience Jesus Christ suffering on the cross? Although we are very busy, we should have the time to pray and talk with God.

Now, looking over my past time, I know that God leads me and I am in his good graces. I hear the call of God to engage in his work, and I have to respond to it. I decide to be a pillar working for the liberation of people, especially the workers. I believe that God is with us. And I will keep prayer and faith in God in my mind as weapons, a shield in fighting for the realization of the Kingdom of God.


1. Let's share our past lives.

2. Listening to the profile of each other, meditate how God has protected and taken care of the life of each of us.

3. "If you are God," you have the mind of God and encourage each other.

4. You can share any word of God in psalm 139 which interests you.

NEXT God who surpasses human experience and the human in the Providence of God.

PRAYER Let's thank God one by one in prayer!


Lesson 10 All is vanity

KEY POINT The human person in real life situations, has many experiences, trials, feelings, etc. From these come his ideas of life and the would around him. But beyond all these is the God, the lord of all who gives that life as a gift.

LEARNING The result of human experience - the Will of God

1. The human person has his own individual thoughts.

The human person has lived his own life. Reviewing one's past life, even though it is not perfect in every case makes one realize that he has power, wisdom, wealth and happiness which is outwardly visible. Also he thinks that by his own efforts he can increase these qualities and improve his lot.

2. All is vanity.

However as he looks at the world from this point of view, he finally comes to realize that "All is vanity." Whenever man faces the reality of his own limitations then he realizes that all is vanity. Every moment of life convinces him that study, work, living, even the knowledge of God - all these - are vanity.

3. Luck and the providence of God

Therefore certain people say, "live as you are!" or "live properly!" And the other people impute life and its problems to luck because they could not solve them according to the principle of "crime and punishment" (cause and effect) But if a person has faith in the providence of God then he/she can see that all is not vanity.

4. God who draws man/woman

God is above thoughts and experiences. Even though He is beyond our control and knowledge completely, He still shows Himself, and lead us along the road to human happiness. So we can take away the uncertainty, the atrophy and the fear of an uncertain future and lean on and give ourselves to God and live. Our life is the gift of God. We are in His providence.

WORD All is vanity (Ecc 1,2-3; 3,1-22)

1 2"Vanity of vanities," says the Preacher, "Vanity of vanities! All is vanity." 3What advantage does man have in all his work Which he does under the sun?

3 1There is an appointed time for everything. And there is a time for every event under heaven - 2A time to give birth, and a time to die; A time to plant, and a time to uproot what is planted. 3A time to kill, and a time to heal; A time to tear down, and a time to build up. 4A time to weep, and a time to laugh; A time to mourn, and a time to dance. 5A time to throw stones, and a time to gather stones; A time to embrace, and a time to shun embracing. 6A time to search, and a time to give up as lost; A time to keep, and a time to throw away. 7A time to tear apart, and a time to sew together; A time to be silent, and a time to speak. 8A time to love, and a time to hate; A time for war, and a time for peace. 9What profit is there to the worker from that in which he toils? 10I have seen the task which God has given the sons of men with which to occupy themselves. 11He has made everything appropriate in its time. He has also set eternity in their heart, yet so that man will not find out the work which God has done from the beginning even to the end. 12I know that there is nothing better for them than to rejoice and to do good in one's lifetime; 13moreover, that every man who eats and drinks sees good in all his labor - it is the gift of God.

14I know that everything God does will remain forever; there is nothing to add to it and there is nothing to take from it, for God has {so} worked that men should fear Him. 15That which is has been already, and that which will be has already been, for God seeks what has passed by.

16Furthermore, I have seen under the sun {that} in the place of justice there is wickedness, and in the place of righteousness there is wickedness. 17I said to myself, "God will judge both the righteous man and the wicked man," for a time for every matter and for every deed is there.

18I said to myself concerning the sons of men, "God has surely tested them in order for them to see that they are but beasts." 19For the fate of the sons of men and the fate of beasts is the same. As one dies so dies the other; indeed, they all have the same breath and there is no advantage for man over beast, for all is vanity. 20All go to the same place. All came from the dust and all return to the dust. 21Who knows that the breath of man ascends upward and the breath of the beast descends downward to the earth? 22And I have seen that nothing is better than that man should be happy in his activities, for that is his lot. For who will bring him to see what will occur after him?


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. Were there any problems which you couldn't solve in your past life?

SEE Reviewing your life until now, do you feel in what direction and through what way God led you?

JUDGE How does God see you in this moment? And how, what direction does God lead you?

ACT If you feel how God is leading you, even though it is not very clear, let's share how you can respond to His leading.

NEXT Why do good people suffer?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 11 Let the day perish on

which I was to be born

KEY POINT The suffering of man/woman is not a punishment caused by his/her sin but the mystery of man/woman himself/herself. Rather man/woman can come to salvation by accepting and participating in this suffering.

LEARNING Human suffering and salvation

1. The principle "reward for good; punishment for evil" is no longer accepted today. Israel thought they would receive blessings and be saved if they obeyed the command of God. But it was not so. Rather those who kept the commandments well suffered and those who did not were often prosperous in this world, as they ridiculed the former. How did this come about? Why did these unjust situations happen?

2. "Crime and punishment" principle does not apply. - Man had thought his suffering was the result of his sin. Israel had so thought until the period of Jesus. When the disciples saw a man blind from birth they questioned Jesus, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he should be born blind?" (Jn 9,2) In a similar situation, we too ask that same question. But Jesus answered, "(It was) neither (that) this man sinned, nor his parents; but (it was) in order that the works of God might be displayed in him." (verse 3) In this answer we can see that the traditional principle "crime-punishment/good-reward" no longer holds.

3. Sacred Scripture is a great book about 'suffering.' Let us quote from the books of the Old Testament a few examples of situations which bear the signs of suffering, and above all moral suffering: the danger of death, the death of one's own children and, especially, the death of the firstborn and only son; and then too: the lack of offspring. nostalgia for the homeland, persecution and hostility of the environment, mockery and scorn of the one who suffers, loneliness and abandonment; and again: the remorse of conscience, the difficulty of understanding why the wicked prosper and the just suffer, the unfaithfulness and ingratitude of friends and neighbours; and finally: the misfortunes of one's own nation. It can be said that man suffers whenever he experiences any kind of evil. In the vocabulary of the Old Testament, suffering and evil are identified with each other. Thus it defined as "evil" everything that was suffering. But the Catholic Church defines man as good in his essence. (From now on refer to Apostolic Letter 'SALVIFICI DOLORIS')

4. Human suffering raises the question : "Why?" For man does not put this question to the world, even though it is from the world that suffering often comes to him, but he puts it to God as the Creator and Lord of the world. The Old Testament shows us human suffering as a punishment inflicted by God for human sins. And the human sins demand punishment, because men/women expect that the sinner suffer because of his/her sin. But we can see through Job how God, who is good, does not cause the suffering but simply permits it. (The Lord allowed Satan to test Job with suffering to demonstrate Job's righteousness. - Job 1,12; 2,6). Thus suffering Job prefigures the suffering Jesus (ie. the Passion).

5. Salvation means liberation from evil, and for this reason it is closely bound up with the problem of suffering. Thus Christ who came to overcome the evil of the world, is the Savior who bears the suffering instead of us. "Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. But the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him." (Isa 53,4c.d.6c.d.) Thus, suffering is opening up to Christ; accepting suffering is accepting Christ. Those who believe in Christ overcome death and rise again because through their own sufferings they share in the passion and death of Christ which brought salvation to the whole world. And all those who suffer have been called once and for all to become sharers "in Christ's sufferings" (1Pet 4,13), just as all have been called to "complete" with their own suffering "what is lacking in Christ's afflictions" (Gol 1,24 - the St. Paul's view of suffering). (At one and the same time Christ by his sufferings has taught man to do good and also to do good to those who suffer. In this double aspect he has completely revealed the meaning of suffering.)

6. The world of human suffering unceasingly calls forth, so to speak, another world: the world of human love; and in a certain sense man owes to suffering that unselfish love which stirs in his heart. Whenever confronted by human suffering, every individual must feel as if called personally to bear witness to love in the midst of suffering, and "stop" at the suffering of one's neighbor, have "compassion" for that sufferer, and give some help. This is just to complete with one's own suffering what is lacking in Christ's sufferings.

WORD Job's suffering(Job 1,8-12.20-22; 2,4-10; 3,1-; 4,1.7; 6,; 7,7.18; 38,1.2; 40,7.8; 42,1-3)

1 8And the Lord said to Satan, "Have you considered My servant Job? For there is no one like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, fearing God and turning away from evil." 9Then Satan answered the Lord, "Does Job fear God for nothing? 10Hast Thou not made a hedge about him and his house and all that he has, on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land. 11But put forth Thy hand now and touch all that he has; he will surely curse Thee to Thy face." 12Then the Lord said to Satan, "Behold, all that he has is in your power, only do not put forth your hand on him." So Satan departed from the presence of the Lord.

20Then Job arose and tore his robe and shaved his head, and he fell to the ground and worshiped. 21And he said, #"Naked I came from my mother's womb, And naked I shall return there. The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away. Blessed be the name of the Lord."

22Through all this Job did not sin nor did he blame God.

2 4And Satan answered the Lord and said, "Skin for skin! Yes, all that a man has he will give for his life. 5"However, put forth Thy hand, now, and touch his bone and his flesh; he will curse Thee to Thy face." 6So the Lord said to Satan, "Behold, he is in your power, only spare his life." 7Then Satan went out from the presence of the Lord, and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head. 8And he took a potsherd to scrape himself while he was sitting among the ashes. 9Then his wife said to him, "Do you still hold fast your integrity? Curse God and die!" 10But he said to her, "You speak as one of the foolish women speaks. Shall we indeed accept good from God and not accept adversity?" In all this Job did not sin with his lips.

3 1Afterward Job opened his mouth and cursed the day of his {birth.} 2And Job said, 3"Let the day perish on which I was to be born, And the night {which} said, 'A boy is conceived.' 11Why did I not die at birth, Come forth from the womb and expire? 20Why is light given to him who suffers, And life to the bitter of soul; 25For what I fear comes upon me, And what I dread befalls me. 26I am not at ease, nor am I quiet, And I am not at rest, but turmoil comes."

4 1Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered, 7"Remember now, who {ever} perished being innocent? Or where were the upright destroyed?"

6 1Then Job answered, 2"Oh that my vexation were actually weighed, And laid in the balances together with my iniquity! 24Teach me, and I will be silent; And show me how I have erred. 25How painful are honest words! But what does your argument prove?"

7 7"Remember that my life is {but} breath, My eye will not again see good. 18That Thou dost examine him every morning, And try him every moment?"

38 1Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind and said, 2"Who is this that darkens counsel By words without knowledge?

40 7Now gird up your loins like a man; I will ask you, and you instruct Me. 8Will you really annul My judgment? Will you condemn Me that you may be justified?"

42 1Then Job answered the Lord, and said, 2"I know that Thou canst do all things, And that no purpose of Thine can be thwarted. 3Who is this that hides counsel without knowledge? Therefore I have declared that which I did not understand, Things too wonderful for me, which I did not know."

SHARING Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

SEE What suffering are you in?

JUDGE Why do you think you are in suffering?

ACT What shall you do to overcome this suffering?

NEXT The History of Salvation of the World 2 Our Lord, Jesus Christ in the New Testament

God became a man for us.

PRAYER Let's thank God one by one!





The History of Salvation of the World 2

Our Lord, Jesus Christ

in the New Testament

Lesson 12 Be it done to me

according to your word

KEY POINT How does God save the world? And who does God select as His helper?

LEARNING Annunciation foretelling of the birth of the Savior, 'humble and obedient'

1. God wanted to send His only Son as a man saves the world. And He needed the womb of a woman for this purpose.

2. God's human helper:

God sent an angel to the virgin Mary, who told her she would bear 'the Son of God' and Mary responded humbly to the call of God. This response of Mary began the history of salvation of the world. The angel said to Mary who was afraid "Do not be afraid, Mary. For nothing will be impossible with God." And Mary responded in faith, "Behold, the handmaid of the Lord; be it done to me according to your word."

* This faith of Mary is the same as Abraham's who left the place where he lived and went to the place which God led him to; and it is the same faith as the church has today. (Gn 12,1-4) The fathers of the early Church called Mary who obeyed the word of God 'the second Eve' or 'new Eve' to contrast her with Eve who did not obey the word of God. They also called Christ the "New Adam." (Ro 5,12-21)

3. Sometimes God's grace is a practical blessing to man and relieves his pains and sufferings. But the opposite can also occur (ie grace brings trials and misunderstandings) for the Good of the community (the custom of the time demanded that a pregnant virgin be stoned.)

Therefore those who believe in God and want to do His Will should search for that will and try to discover God's intention even through abnormal happenings.)

WORD The birth of Jesus foretold (Lk 1,26-38)

1 26Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city in Galilee, called Nazareth, 27to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the descendants of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. 28And coming in, he said to her, "Hail, favored one! The Lord (is) with you." 29But she was greatly troubled at (this) statement, and kept pondering what kind of salutation this might be. 30And the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary; for you have found favor with God. 31And behold, you will conceive in your womb, and bear a son, and you shall name Him Jesus. 32He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David; 33and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever; and His kingdom will have no end." 34And Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I am a virgin?" 35And the angel answered and said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy offspring shall be called the Son of God. 36And behold, even your relative Elizabeth has also conceived a son in her old age; and she who was called barren is now in her sixth month. 37For nothing will be impossible with God." 38And Mary said, "Behold, the bondslave of the Lord; be it done to me according to your word." And the angel departed from her.

* Remarks - In second reading make a couple with a man/woman beside, one is the role of the angel, 'Gabriel' and the other 'Mary', read twice and listen directly like as the voice of God.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. How did Mary become pregnant?

3. What did Mary say when receiving humbly the Will of God?

SEE What do the people want me to do?


1. What are your worries between 'what you want to do' and 'what you should do' (what the others want me to do ) Complete the following "Worry Chart" and let's discuss our worries

Worry Chart




Things which you want to do.

Things which you should do.

2. God said through the angel to Mary, "You will be the mother of the savior." Then What will the angel say to you when you find yourself in situation no. 1 above?

ACT Let's pray that we will fulfill to the best of our ability our promise to apply God's word to our life situations.

NEXT What is the symbol of the savior?

PRAYER The Hail Mary

Hail, Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you, Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb

"Hail, favored one! The Lord (is) with you." (Lk 1,28 - Angel's greeting to Holy Mary)

Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God,

- "Blessed among women (are) you, and blessed (is) the fruit of your womb!" (Lk 1,42 - the song which Elizabeth sang for the visitation of Holy Mary)

pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.

the song of the Church to Holy Mary who is to be the mother of God


"Behold, the handmaid of the Lord; be it done to me according to your word."


Lesson 13 It's a sign which is a baby wrapped in cloths,

lying in a manger

KEY POINT Jesus was born as a poor and weak baby, wrapped in swaddling clothes, and lying in a manger to give joy especially to those who are poor and in difficulties.

LEARNING The saviour's manifestation to the magi and shepherds was through being born poor and weak.

1. The savior came as a a poor and weak baby who renounced the power of God.

2. The savior who was born was just the One who was prophesied by the prophets.

1) (To the serpent which is the symbol of the temptation and evil) "I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall crush your head, And you shall be bruised by his heel." (Gn 3,15)

2) "The Virgin is with child and bears a son and calls his name Immanuel."(Isaiah 7,14)

3) "But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, so small that you are hardly named among the clans of Judah, from you shall I raise the one who is to rule over Israel. For he comes forth from of old, beyond any known time." (Micah 5,1a; Mt 2,5)

3. The savior showed himself firstly to the poor.

- shepherds : poor men who were despised, suspected and considered as sinners at that time

- Wise men : those who have the spirit of the poor in heart, who saw the star, and recognized the birth of the savior. The pagans (who were considered excluded from salvation at that time)

4. Even though Jesus was God, He gave up all divine power and became a human being. So he became poor. This is just a sign of the love of God for man/woman.

5. The gifts which the wise men present to Jesus.

1) Gold - the gift which is given only to a King; the gift which was given Jesus the King of heaven and earth.

2) Frankincense - the sign of adoration; the gift which is given only to God.

3) Myrrh - the precious gift which is used in death and burial; the gift which was a preparation for the death of Jesus.

WORD The birth of Jesus (Lk 2,1-16)

2 1Now it came about in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus, that a census be taken of all the inhabited earth. 2This was the first census taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria. 3And all were proceeding to register for the census, everyone to his own city. 4And Joseph also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David, 5in order to register, along with Mary, who was engaged to him, and was with child. 6And it came about that while they were there, the days were completed for her to give birth. 7And she gave birth to her first-born son; and she wrapped Him in cloths, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.

8And in the same region there were (some) shepherds staying out in the fields, and keeping watch over their flock by night. 9And an angel of the Lord suddenly stood before them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them; and they were terribly frightened. 10And the angel said to them, "Do not be afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of a great joy which shall be for all the people; 11for today in the city of David there has been born for you a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. 12And this (will be) a sign for you: you will find a baby wrapped in cloths, and lying in a manger." 13And suddenly there appeared with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,

14"Glory to God in the highest,

And on earth peace among men with whom He is pleased."

15And it came about when the angels had gone away from them into heaven, that the shepherds (began) saying to one another, "Let us go straight to Bethlehem then, and see this thing that has happened which the Lord has made known to us." 16And they came in haste and found their way to Mary and Joseph, and the baby as He lay in the manger.

The visit of magi (Mt 2,1-12)

2 1Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, saying, 2"Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we saw His star in the east, and have come to worship Him." 3And when Herod the king heard it, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4And gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he (began) to inquire of them where the Christ was to be born. 5And they said to him, "In Bethlehem of Judea, for so it has been written by the prophet, 6'And you, Bethlehem, land of Judah, Are by no means least among the leaders of Judah; For out of you shall come forth a Ruler, Who will shepherd My people Israel.'"

7Then Herod secretly called the magi, and ascertained from them the time the star appeared. 8And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, "Go and make careful search for the Child; and when you have found (Him,) report to me, that I too may come and worship Him." 9And having heard the king, they went their way; and lo, the star, which they had seen in the east, went on before them, until it came and stood over where the Child was. 10And when they saw the star, they rejoiced exceedingly with great joy. 11And they came into the house and saw the Child with Mary His mother; and they fell down and worshiped Him; and opening their treasures they presented to Him gifts of gold and frankincense and myrrh. 12And having been warned (by God) in a dream not to return to Herod, they departed for their own country by another way.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. Why was Jesus born in poverty, lying in a manger (The feeding place of a horse) not in a hotel or the king's palace?

3. Why did Jesus come as the weakest baby not a miracle worker, a general or a king?

SEE The magi knew of the birth of Jesus by seeing the star.

1) Which star (aim, direction or position) do you follow?

2) What do you do today that shows you Jesus?

JUDGE There are people who think that a comfortable life is a sign of blessing and salvation. In this view how can you find the face of the savior in an infant Jesus who came into the word in poverty and weakness?

ACT What gift do you give the infant Jesus who is born into this world for us?

NEXT How did the infant Jesus who became a man grow up?

PRAYER Contemplative prayer

Now, let's close our eyes and imagine. See the night sky. There you seek the big star which will light the way to Jesus. You go for a long time, the star is hidden and you don't know how to go. Let's go to Herod and question the way we must go. Imagine the face of Herod in front of you. See in Herod the devil who tempts those who want to live a good life. And see Jesus who conquers the dark devil. See the star which the Lord lights for us and follow with the magi.

It is dark but there is a light coming from the stable where Jesus was born. Go into the stable, say hello to Mary and Joseph.

"We came to congratulate you on the birth of Jesus!"

Now, Let's follow Mary and Joseph and see the infant Jesus. The infant Jesus is wrapped in swaddling clothes and lying in a manger. Jesus is laughing and says to me.

"Ah! You Came."

Now, say hello to Jesus, and tell him anything you want to say.

(Write below what you want to say to Jesus.)


Goodbye and see you again! I'll come back soon!"

Stay and feel comfortable in the warm eyes of the Lord who sees us, and offer him your heart as a gift before departing.

PAUSE FOR THOUGHT Let's draw the stable where Jesus was born. And draw also the warm eyes of the infant Jesus, seeing us and laughing.


Lesson 14 Did you not know that

I had to be in My Father's house?

KEY POINT Jesus Himself walked 'the way every man should walk'. As Jesus was growing up He obeyed his parents in childhood, worked as a carpenter following His father, Joseph, until he was 30 years old and was a member of the Holy Family.

LEARNING The childhood of Jesus - Walking the human road, the Gospel of Work

1. Jesus who wanted to be with the Father. "Why is it that you were looking for Me? Did you not know that I had to be in My Father's (house)?" (verse 49)

2. But Jesus gave up His own will and respected and obeyed with humble and gentle disposition the human living conditions of his state (His parent in the ground) in the will of the Father. So He followed the will of God, the Father, which was to be in a family and thus established the "Holy Family."

3. Preaching 'the Gospel of work' The son of God, Savior, Jesus Himself worked.

1) the sacredness and dignity of work - its foundation.

(1) the sacredness of work - Human toil is not a suffering or a punishment intended only for the lowly but a holy thing which continues the creation of God. Jesus shows this by working Himself.

(2) the dignity of work - By working Himself, Jesus dignified work because the man who worked possessed the image (thought, love, mind and spirit) of God.

2) Being a helper who continues the creation of God through the work.

3) Forming a family through work.

4) Earning a living through work

5) Serving society through work

6) Fulfilling oneself through work - Self-commitment, Self- completion

7) Creating the 'New Heaven and the New Earth' through hard work.

WORD Jesus' childhood (Lk 2,41-52)

2 41And His parents used to go to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of the Passover. 42And when He became twelve, they went up (there) according to the custom of the Feast; 43and as they were returning, after spending the full number of days, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. And His parents were unaware of it, 44but supposed Him to be in the caravan, and went a day's journey; and they (began) looking for Him among their relatives and acquaintances. 45And when they did not find Him, they returned to Jerusalem, looking for Him. 46And it came about that after three days they found Him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them, and asking them questions. 47And all who heard Him were amazed at His understanding and His answers. 48And when they saw Him, they were astonished; and His mother said to Him, "Son, why have You treated us this way? Behold, Your father and I have been anxiously looking for You." 49And He said to them, "Why is it that you were looking for Me? Did you not know that I had to be in My Father's (house?") 50And they did not understand the statement which He had made to them.

51And He went down with them, and came to Nazareth; and He continued in subjection to them; and His mother treasured all (these) things in her heart. 52And Jesus kept increasing in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. What is the meaning of what Jesus said, "Do you not know that I must be in my Father's house?" Where do you seek Jesus?


1. Do you or your fellow factory/office-workers feel the value of work? If not, why not?

2. What are the reasons you don't feel the value and sacredness of work as you should?

3. What will society be like if it continues as it is?

JUDGE What will God say to this society and to this way of working?

ACT What shall you do to work joyfully and fruitfully?

NEXT How do you prepare for meeting the Lord?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 15 This is My beloved Son,

in whom I am well-pleased

KEY POINT The free choice of Jesus in fulfilling the Will of the Father and the response and the blessing of the Father

LEARNING the Lord was Baptized - the start of His public life

1. Fulfilling the will of the Father - At 30 years of age, when the time was come, Jesus went to John and was baptized though sinless Himself. So Jesus chose the Father's will freely and the Father approved of Jesus' choice and blessed Him. Therefore Jesus confirmed His unity with God. ("This is My beloved Son in whom I am well-pleased.")

2. Conversion is "to repent of wrongs, be sorry for them and return to God" and "to know, love God and live according to the will of God"

* Remarks - May you meet 'the God who is full of mercy' and 'who is love itself'. Examples of the unusual experiences of God are as follows ;

1) God is the norm of "good." : "Live a good life."

2) God watches and judges : "If you sin again that will be really serious."

3) God is not felt : I feel nothing. (even when one cannot concentrate and is distracted or not paying attention there are times when he/she still thinks of God.)

* Good response : "You are wonderful!" "I love you!" "You are pretty!"

3. The Baptism of John and the Church's Sacrament of Baptism.

Baptism is a ceremony of washing with water and can be thought of in connection with the Jewish custom of purifications, in OT which was washing the body before doing any sacred work. The Baptism of John was a kind of conversion. So it was the preparation for meeting the Lord.

Sacrament of the Baptism is the ceremony by which we are saved by the death and resurrection of Jesus and by which we become a new child of God. This is the Sacrament of dying to one's sin and being reborn in the Lord. This means it is a change of the person whereby he/she rejects the values of this world and takes on the values of Jesus.

WORD Baptism of Jesus (Mt 3,1-4.8.13-17)

3 1Now in those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, 2"Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." 3For this is the one referred to by Isaiah the prophet, saying,

"The voice of one crying in the wilderness,

'Make ready the way of the Lord, Make His paths straight!'"

4Now John himself had a garment of camel's hair, and a leather belt about his waist; and his food was locusts and wild honey. 8"Therefore bring forth fruit in keeping with repentance;

13Then Jesus arrived from Galilee at the Jordan (coming) to John, to be baptized by him. 14But John tried to prevent Him, saying, "I have need to be baptized by You, and do You come to me?" 15But Jesus answering said to him, "Permit (it) at this time; for in this way it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he permitted Him. 16And after being baptized, Jesus went up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, (and) coming upon Him, 17and behold, a voice out of the heavens, saying,

"This is My beloved Son,

in whom I am well-pleased."


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. The voice from heaven when Jesus was baptized said, "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased." What will God say when you are baptized and receive Holy Communion?

SEE You must believe in Jesus to receive Baptism and Communion. How can you show that you are serious in your conversion? Talk to each other about this.

JUDGE Sometimes even though I did no wrong a dispute occurred and I suffered. As I meditate on John baptizing Jesus, what was God telling us through this incident, where I was innocent?

ACT What must you do if you want to be a child loved by the Lord?

NEXT What must we do to make the world a good place in which to live?

PRAYER Let's pray to thank God one by one


Lesson 16 Man shall live on every word

that proceeds out of the mouth of God

KEY POINT The method of salvation of God and of man/woman

LEARNING The 3 temptations Tension between God's saving plan and man's individual desires.

1. 'Bread' and 'Word' - Even though man/woman must to eat the bread (needs must be fulfilled.). There are needs other than eating, filling, having material goods for one's condition, these are the need for friendship, love, faith, concession, forgiveness etc.

In other words we should live according to the instructions which God has given us and walk the way he has shown us. So clinging to material goods only is a temptation.

But it is not enough to relieve a person's physical hunger only, we must also relieve his spiritual hunger.

2. "falling down from the temple" - if a person throws himself down from the pinnacle of the temple, his body naturally will be broken and he will die. But those who follow the devils suggestion to refuse to accept the human condition want to enjoy super human power. This is also putting God to the test.

However, love cannot be acquired by some astonishing show. Neither can faith be acquired if there is doubt.

3. "worship me" - This involves man's/woman's abandoning his/her human dignity, values and the truth, in order to realize his/her sinful human ambitions. This happens in the case of acting unjustly, taking bribes or compromising moral behaviour.

To serve God only is to follow the will of God and His righteousness. - ie. maintaining human dignity and acting as a christian should.

4. The devil continued : "If you are the Son of God" The devil wanted to upset Jesus's purpose in coming into the world and subjecting himself fully to the human condition. He (devil) points out an easy and a false way to Jesus. But by overcoming the temptations of the devil, Jesus showed that if anyone who is tempted relies strongly on God's love and help, he can completely overcome any temptation.

If we endeavor to be led by the Holy Spirit always, we can see whether something is temptation or not. Even though we fall into temptation we should come to the Lord again. Let's pray always and ask the guidance of the Holy Spirit so that we can recognize temptation and reject it.

WORD The temptation of Jesus (Mt 4,1-11)

4 1Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 2And after He had fasted forty days and forty nights, He then became hungry. 3And the tempter came and said to Him, "If You are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread." 4But He answered and said, "It is written, 'Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.'" 5Then the devil took Him into the holy city; and he had Him stand on the pinnacle of the temple, 6and said to Him, "If You are the Son of God throw Yourself down; for it is written, 'He will give His angels charge concerning You'; and 'On (their) hands they will bear You up, Lest You strike Your foot against a stone.'" 7Jesus said to him, "On the other hand, it is written, 'You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.'" 8Again, the devil took Him to a very high mountain, and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory; 9and he said to Him, "All these things will I give You, if You fall down and worship me." 10Then Jesus said to him, "Be gone, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only.'" 11Then the devil left Him; and behold, angels came and (began) to minister to Him.

SHARING Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?


1. Among the above 3 temptations which one concerns you most. In what sense is it a real temptation for you?

2. Why do you face temptation?

3. If you go along with the temptation what will be the result?

JUDGE What does God want you to do at such a time?

ACT Abiding in God's love, try to put into practice all that you are capable of doing to get rid of the temptation


PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 17 The Lord's Spirit is upon Me,

to preach the gospel to the poor

KEY POINT Jesus started His public life after His baptism. From this time Jesus taught by living Himself the way to God. This way is the Good News (the Gospel), "It mean's to accept the Gospel (the word of the Lord) and to be liberated from one's sin and the bonds of society (ie. social evil, structured evil, necessary evil - the Original sin) by choosing God freely."

LEARNING The ministry of the savior - preaching the Good News to the poor

1. Jesus is the One who is the son of God, received the Holy Spirit and came among us.

2. to preach the gospel to the poor - Even though Jesus was of the same essence as God, He chose the human living conditions - being hungry, needing sleep and being tired like us. That is, He gave up all the divine privileges and rights and became poor. This poverty is reflective of the love of God which gives up all. So one who accepts and believes in the Lord who became poor and renounced riches, is already rich because he has set out on the road Jesus travelled. (reference in Mt chapter 5 Beatitudes)

3. to proclaim release to the captives - Jesus restored to those burdened by the sins of this world, the image of God and the freedom and happiness which God gave man at creation.

4. recovery of sight to the blind - Jesus showed men/women the road they should travel; He shone God's light on those who had gone astray; He enabled the blind not just to see physical light but also the light of God.

5. to set free those who are downtrodden - Jesus enabled humanity which was oppressed by the evil social system and environmental control to liberate itself and live in the freedom that comes from believing in Christ, and following his teachings.

6. the favorable year of the Lord - God is with us here today. So the word of the Lord is fulfilled in those who believe in Him.

WORD The ministry of Jesus (Lk 4,16-19.21)

4 16Jesus came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up; and as was His custom, He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath, and stood up to read. 17And the book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to Him. And He opened the book, and found the place where it was written,

18"The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me,

Because He anointed Me

to preach the gospel to the poor.

He has sent Me to proclaim

release to the captives,

And recovery of sight to the blind,

To set free those who are downtrodden,

19To proclaim the favorable year of the Lord."

21And He began to say to them, "Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing."

SHARING Jesus came to Nazareth and entered the synagogue on the Sabbath, and stood up to read the book of the prophet Isaiah and said to them, "Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." Then let's think together and share how we can fulfill this word in our lives.

1. "The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me." Doses the Holy Spirit who led Jesus to the poor lead you to Jesus? Do you feel Jesus is with you?

2. "He anointed Me to preach the gospel to the poor."

1) Do you feel the call of Jesus to bring the good news to the poor today?

2) Have you any friend who needs something at the moment? Who is he (she)?

3) What shall you do for him (her)?

3. "He has sent Me to proclaim release to the captives"

1) Do you have any friend who has something he is afraid someone might steal. Because of this fear is he/she a prisoner of the toy or object? Who is he (she)?

2) What shall you do for him (her)?

4. "recovery of sight to the blind"

1) Is there any friend who is blind with greed and cannot see Jesus or his neighbor? Who is he (she)?

2) What shall you do for him (her)?

5. "To set free those who are downtrodden"

1) Is there any friend who is oppressed? Who is he (she)?

2) What shall you do for him (her)?

6. "To proclaim the favorable year of the Lord"

1) How does one proclaim the favorable year of the Lord?

2) How can you do this?

NEXT What will happens to sinners and rich men? Will they be excluded from salvation?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 18 Zaccheus, hurry, come down,

for today I must stay at your house

KEY POINT The new life of conversion and salvation which is born in God's great love.

LEARNING Conversion - being changed and reborn by the love of the Lord.

1. God loves humanity and saves it. So salvation is achieved not by "how well one keep the law" (from a legalistic point of view), but by the unconditional love of God (the rebirth of Zaccheus by the visiting of Jesus).

According to the legalistic mind of the Jews, a person was saved by keeping the law. So men make the regulations for keeping God's law. Then, as times went on, there was a tendency to keep only the letter of the law but not the spirit.

In certain cases this tendency became an obstacle and elements of structured evil supposedly based on the law, began to creep into the system. For example, if a thief or a prostitute is to be saved they should do penance and atone. Then they should buy an offering for the sacrifice of atonement with clean money, according to the regulation at that time. But they could not do this because they had stolen money only etc. So they could not perform the sacrifice and so stayed eternally sinners according to the legalistic interpretation of the then law of God.

The poor didn't know the law well and couldn't keep it easily. Ultimately, according to the regulations of the law, the poor and those who didn't know the law easily became sinners, and those who met them and lived with them became sinners also. So they were isolated by the religion and society of the day. So those who were judged as sinners by society had no hope for salvation again in Judaism and its Legalistic system.

2. Human (Zaccheus) was changed when he felt and experienced the love of God. Jesus forgives and saves man/woman even though he/she has sinned much, provided he/she wants to come to Jesus. The human person, having received this love, will give up his/her way of thinking and living up to now and live newly in the Lord again. This is the 'conversion.'

3. Jesus came to call the lost - Jesus came to seek men/women whom society regards as sinners and who are not cared for by anyone. So they await upon God who alone will help them.

WORD Zaccheus listens to the words of Jesus and is converted. (Lk 19,1-10)

19 1And He entered and was passing through Jericho. 2And behold, there was a man called by the name of Zaccheus; and he was a chief tax-gatherer, and he was rich. 3And he was trying to see who Jesus was, and he was unable because of the crowd, for he was small in stature. 4And he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree in order to see Him, for He was about to pass through that way. 5And when Jesus came to the place, He looked up and said to him, "Zaccheus, hurry and come down, for today I must stay at your house." 6And he hurried and came down, and received Him gladly. 7And when they saw it, they all (began) to grumble, saying, "He has gone to be the guest of a man who is a sinner." 8And Zaccheus stopped and said to the Lord, "Behold, Lord, half of my possessions I will give to the poor, and if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I will give back four times as much." 9And Jesus said to him, "Today salvation has come to this house, because he, too, is a son of Abraham. 10"For the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost."

SHARING Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

SEE Are there men/women like 'Zaccheus' in this Gospel whom you ignore? Who are they? Why are they ignored? What do these people do?


1. How does God see these men/women?

2. Jesus said the house of Zaccheus was saved. What did Zaccheus decide to do so that he was saved by Jesus? And how did Zaccheus carry out this decision?

ACT Zaccheus climbed up a sycamore tree to see Jesus because he was small in stature. Do you see Jesus? If not, what can you do to see Him?

NEXT When will the kingdom of God, which the Lord preached, come?

PRAYER Let's pray God one by one!


tax-gatherer In Jesus' days (because the people were poor), the tax collector paid peoples' tax to Rome from his own money first. He later collected the tax from them at a high rate of interest. The people judged him a sinner and hated him because of this.


Lesson 19 Talitha Kum

KEY POINT Jesus showed the kingdom of God's love through the miracles.

LEARNING Jesus who is Lord the founding of the kingdom of God through the miracles

Jesus, through this miracles, showed us that "He is the lord of life" that God loves humanity. And by these miracles we can recognize the start of the kingdom of God through Jesus 'here and now.' Jesus showed the truth of His word through the miracles

* Remarks - the words of Jesus Lesson 15 "The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, Because He anointed Me to preach the gospel to the poor." (Lk 4,16-21)

1. The kingdom of God is given to the pure who are like children. Believing and putting into practice the words of God is the way to accepting the Kingdom.

2. Jesus is the Lord who raised the daughter of the synagogue official, Jairus, to life although she was dead. Through this miracle he made it possible for the people to praise God.

3. Jesus did not force belief through the miracles. He wanted people to follow him not because he worked miracles, but because he was the saviour. (Mk 5,43a)

4. Healing of the sick is not just to do a good act or act superstitiously. It is the word of God.

* If sick person should go to the hospital, the healer is not a doctor but God. A doctor simply helps to heal the sick person; the healer is God. Because life is of God. (Cf. Lesson 4)

5. Seeing these miracles we can know the kingdom of God has come in the 'here and now' in which we are living. Although not yet complete, the kingdom which has already been established, will be fully realized in time.

WORD Jesus bless children (Lk 18,15-17)

18 15They were bringing even their babies to Him so that He might touch them, but when the disciples saw it, they (began) rebuking them. 16But Jesus called for them, saying, "Permit the children to come to Me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these. 17Truly I say to you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God like a child shall not enter it (at all.)"

'Talitha kum' (Mk 5, 38-43)

5 38And they came to the house of the synagogue official; and Jesus beheld a commotion, and (people) loudly weeping and wailing. 39And entering in, He said to them, "Why make a commotion and weep? The child has not died, but is asleep." 40And they (began) laughing at Him. But putting them all out, He took along the child's father and mother and His own companions, and entered (the room) where the child was. 41And taking the child by the hand, He said to her, "Talitha kum!" (which translated means, "Little girl, I say to you, arise!"). 42And immediately the girl rose and (began) to walk; for she was twelve years old. And immediately they were completely astounded. 43And He gave them strict orders that no one should know about this; and He said that (something) should be given her to eat.

Paralytic at the pool of Bethesda (Jn 5,1-10)

5 1After these things there was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 2Now there is in Jerusalem by the sheep (gate) a pool, which is called in Hebrew Bethesda, having five porticoes. 3In these lay a multitude of those who were sick, blind, lame, and withered, [waiting for the moving of the waters; 4for an angel of the Lord went down at certain seasons into the pool, and stirred up the water; whoever then first, after the stirring up of the water, stepped in was made well from whatever disease with which he was afflicted.] 5And a certain man was there, who had been thirty-eight years in his sickness. 6When Jesus saw him lying there, and knew that he had already been a long time (in that condition,) He said to him, "Do you wish to get well?" 7The sick man answered Him, "Sir, I have no man to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up, but while I am coming, another steps down before me." 8Jesus said to him, "Arise, take up your pallet, and walk." 9And immediately the man became well, and took up his pallet and (began) to walk. Now it was the Sabbath on that day.

10Therefore the Jews were saying to him who was cured, "It is the Sabbath, and it is not permissible for you to carry your pallet."


1. What did Jesus tell us to do in order to enter the kingdom of God?

2. How were the dead girl and the paralytic at the pool of Bethesda healed?

3. What did Jews say to the man at the pool of Bethesda who who was cured, took up his pallet and walked?

4. What thoughts and feelings do have on hearing the above the miracle stories? Let's share together.

SEE Did you ever feel God is with us (or God is being.) Or Were there 'strange and mysterious' accidents in your lives which you couldn't understand by natural intelligence or common sense?

JUDGE Do you believe in God? Do you accept the kingdom of God? If not, why do you hesitate? For example; Jews didn't accept because of a legalistic understanding of the Sabbath, "Never work on the Sabbath!" Became an idol for them not the command of a loving God. Why can you not accept God and his Kingdom?

ACT What will you do to believe more deeply in God and live more fully in Him? What can I do?

NEXT What is true happiness?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 20 Blessed are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven

KEY POINT What is the true happiness?

LEARNING The Beatitudes

1. "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven"

1) Those in poverty - These are the poor, the suffering, those who are in unhappy situations and are considered capable only of help from God. In general people hate the poor and consider them unfortunates being punished or cursed by God. However, happy are those poor who, in their poverty recognize themselves as lacking and weak and share themselves and their compassion with each other. These people build the kingdom of God.

2) Those who voluntarily choose poverty - How happy are those who choose with their own free will the poverty which others want to avoid and who regard their time, capabilities and possessions as the gifts to them from God, not only for themselves, but for all and who want to share these gifts with others. These are they who rely totally on God and try to follow his will. They are happy and live already in the kingdom of God.

2. "Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted"

Comforted will those be who do no wrong but mourn together with those who are suffering and in trouble. Those who repent and mourn together "under the Cross of Christ" that they didn't help neighbors or hindered happiness and salvation of others by not confronting injustice and selfishness will be comforted by the Lord.

On the other hand, those who did nothing to relieve the sufferings of others or did nothing to comfort them will not receive sympathy themselves.

3. "Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth"

Those who are kind, always welcoming, have mercy on and give comfort to their fellows, are patient and forgiving of will be happy. Those who have "love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control" (the fruits of the spirit - Gal 5,22 ) and come together around Jesus, the humble servant, will inherit the kingdom of God because they believed in God, the Creator and the Lord of the world.

4. "Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied"

Those who hate lies, do no evil although they be hated for not doing so and do not solve a problem by evil means are happy. (for example - those who instead of proposing an abortion, help a mother or try to get her baby adopted.)

Militants for love who "faithfully bring forth justice. And will not be disheartened or crushed, until they have established justice in the earth." (Isa 42,3-4) are happy. They show the justice of God and God will fulfill their thirst because they "thirsted" for God. (Jn 19,28)

5. "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy"

Those who forgive the sinner and respect the dignity of people who sinned, and who are merciful are happy.

Jesus saw the people who killed Him and said, "Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing." (Lk 23,34) and asked forgiveness of God for them. And He said to another sinner who repented of his sins on the Cross, "Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise." (Lk 23,43) Those who receive this mercy of the Lord are they who keep the commandment, "For if you forgive men for their transgressions, your heavenly Father will also forgive you" (Mt 6,14) are happy.

6. "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God"

There are people who are unhappy because they are afraid lest their sins be revealed. Also those who, for their own benefit, dissemble and so cannot be believed.

"Conscience is the most secret core and sanctuary of a man. There he is alone with God, whose voice echoes in his depths. In a wonderful manner conscience reveals that law which is fulfilled by love of God and neighbor." (The Church in the modern world no. 16 in the documents of Vatican )

7. "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God"

Those who try to reconcile people, to promote unity and peace in the world. Also those who renounce vengeance, occupy themselves in doing justice and are convinced that there is no peace unless God gives it and who pray, "Lord, make me an instrument of your peace!" like St. Frances of Assisi will be lovely sons of God. "Glory to God in the highest, And on earth peace among men with whom He is pleased." (Lk 2,14)

8. "Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven"

Those are happy who help those excluded by society and befriend them; those who, though they be dishonored, or even killed because they tried to establish discipline and order. Because they are the 'anonymous Christians' of the kingdom of God. The glory of the resurrection awaits those who, following on the footsteps of Jesus, are modern day prophets of God's word and live righteous lives.

* "Blessed are you when (men) cast insults at you, and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, on account of Me. Rejoice, and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you"

These are they who are misunderstood, hated and avoided by the people. For obeying the word of Jesus or practising the 8 beatitudes above.

The 8 beatitudes above are just the way of Jesus, the promise of hope for the kingdom of God, the new heaven and the new earth. So the beatitudes are the happiness which Jesus gave to the world. ie. the road Jesus walked.

We can find the desire for this happiness expressed in the Lord's Prayer. The Lord's Prayer which the Lord prayed is the prayer to "do the will of the Father, on earth as it is in heaven", and to lead us from temptations and evils, by coming to the Lord and being in happiness with Him. (Mt 6,7-15)

WORD The Beatitudes (Mt 5,3-12)

5 3Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

4Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.

5Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth.

6Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.

7Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy.

8Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.

9Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.

10Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

11Blessed are you when (men) cast insults at you, and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, on account of Me. 12Rejoice, and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

SHARING Jesus says: happiness is to accept the conditions that one is living in now rather than strive after economical and social success and the value of social position which people of the world desire; happiness is also to seek the will of God and live by it. Furthermore He sees more deeply the happiness of the one who is concerned for his neighbor in difficulties, and suffering rather than himself/herself. What is the basis of your considered happiness?


1. Let's share with the person beside you what you have experienced of the above 8 beatitudes.

2. When was I most happy? Why was it so? What happened?

3. Did you make others happy? When? Where? What did you do?

4. Let's compare "the things I do for others" and "the things others do for me." Which is the better? Why?

JUDGE Which among the eight beatitudes above is most important for you? Why does it interest you? (You can answer easily if you consider the opposite eg. the poor - Why are the rich unhappy? They have no friends. They live confined in their house or car.)

ACT Which of the 8 beatitudes above do you wish to possess? What method shall you take to have it?

NEXT What is the first most important requirement for your life?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 21 Seek first His kingdom

and His righteousness

KEY POINT We should choose the will of God in our lives first.

LEARNING The priority of the kingdom of God and its establishment (founding).

1. "Seek first His kingdom and His righteousness"

* "What would Jesus do in this situation?" Or "What does Jesus want you to do in this case?" By asking yourself, these questions seek the will of God and build the kingdom of God.

Here, Let's see an example

In capitalistic society, a chief of enterprise employs the worker, pays wages and the worker receive wages for his work done.

In this case, "The Capital (money) is most important"; it takes precedence over the worker (ie economic determinism); wages are the cost of production. So the entrepreneur wants to make more money by reducing wages (which is thought as a expense) as much as possible. And the entrepreneur is the Lord.

On the contrary, those who think that "Work is prior to capital" (laborism) consider wages as 'the price of the work which the worker gives the entrepreneur. So the worker wants more money for his work. And he thinks the lord of the enterprise is the worker because he has worked, to develop the enterprise.

Well, how shall the christian live in these opposing ideologies?

The christian sees wages as cost and price. In addition they are seen as the cost of living according to the scripture, "By the sweat of your brow You shall eat bread" (Gn 3,19c) That is, wages are seen as things necessary for living as a human being, whether as a worker or a chief who is working. Also through labour man contributes to the welfare of society and his labour guarantees its future.

Therefore the basis of decision as to wages is "How many numbers in his/her family? How many are sick, how many need education or protection?" and "How much does he/she need as a man/woman?". So these consideration are prior to and better than the kind of job/work or position or the profits of the enterprise. And the lord of enterprise is God.

Because when God was creating the world, "To all men/women (not to one man/woman) ie to the human community was given nature as a source of food and to be ruled over." (Cf. Gn 1,26-30)

Nowadays the above Catholic teaching permeates the system of wages and several allowances system of the social welfare state.

2. Therefore 'the kingdom of God' that is 'the kingdom where the Lord is God, which God created and gave us to rule over should see the fulfillment of God's creating purpose.' Let's write this in our heart, and endeavor to live accordingly. So we must form a human community of God's love through observing the proper relations between neighbor and nature.

3. The kingdom of God is the kingdom of men/women who believe in Jesus as the Lord, receive the word of the Lord as the Good News and live sincerely and continuously though there be persecution, confusions and troubles.

Someone has said, "Will the world be changed if oneself is changed? The system should be changed." Or "I know the word of Jesus is good but nobody wants to change so if I change alone then I will suffer, lived in trouble." But the method not only of changing the world but also of saving it is none other than the method of the Lord. We can verify this from human history.

Though others see this as not important and foolish, when we start to write in our hearts and put into practice the small and easy word of the Lord (which is possible) we can build the kingdom of God like the smallest mustard seed which becomes a large tree where we can the kingdom of God which we can live joyfully and happy. Because there would be the Lord with us.

WORD The priority of the kingdom of God (Mt 6,25-34)

6 25For this reason I say to you, do not be anxious for your life, (as to) what you shall eat, or what you shall drink; nor for your body, (as to) what you shall put on. Is not life more than food, and the body than clothing? 26Look at the birds of the air, that they do not sow, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns, and (yet) your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not worth much more than they? 27And which of you by being anxious can add a (single) cubit to his life's span? 28And why are you anxious about clothing? Observe how the lilies of the field grow; they do not toil nor do they spin, 29yet I say to you that even Solomon in all his glory did not clothe himself like one of these. 30But if God so arrays the grass of the field, which is (alive) today and tomorrow is thrown into the furnace, (will He) not much more (do so for) you, O men of little faith? 31Do not be anxious then, saying, 'What shall we eat?' or 'What shall we drink?' or 'With what shall we clothe ourselves?' 32For all these things the Gentiles eagerly seek; for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things. 33But seek first His kingdom and His righteousness; and all these things shall be added to you. 34Therefore do not be anxious for tomorrow; for tomorrow will care for itself. (Each) day has enough trouble of its own.

The parable of the mustard seed (Mk 4,30-32)

4 30And Jesus said, "How shall we picture the kingdom of God, or by what parable shall we present it? 31(It is) like a mustard seed, which, when sown upon the soil, though it is smaller than all the seeds that are upon the soil, 32yet when it is sown, grows up and becomes larger than all the garden plants and forms large branches; so that the birds of the air can nest under its shade."

SHARING Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?


1. We forget Jesus easily in our daily lives. We similarly often pass over much without paying attention. What things do we easily forget to do?

2. What are the troubles which enslave us nowadays? Are these troubles a hindrance to your living with the Lord?

And why are these troubles as a hindrance? (What basic values do you have?)

3. One can't go alone into the kingdom of God.. Who is the one that I do not want to go into the kingdom of God with me? And Why?

JUDGE What does these words of the Lord, "seek first His kingdom and His righteousness; and all these things shall be added to you" demand of you? (What does the Lord want you to change?) Let's share concrete examples from your everyday lives.

ACT The word of Jesus can be like a small mustard seed which is easily forgotten and ignored. If we remember the word of Jesus and put it into practice we can go into the kingdom of God. Let's write the words of Jesus that I can put into practice now by connecting them with the reality of 'JUDGE 2' above.

NEXT Did the joy which arose from my possessions ultimately cause you a feeling of isolation and unhappiness?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 22 Son of mine was dead, and has come to life again

KEY POINT The basis of our happiness is God.

LEARNING The endless and merciful love of God

1. Someone questioned; "Why does God intervene in human freedom?" And "the basis of dignity and freedom comes from humanity itself. Happiness is to seek and do what one wants. So we should be liberated from the intervention of God."

Is this really so?

If one man and one woman love each other, can they then decide the sex of their baby? They can say only after the baby was born, "It is a son" or "a daughter."

And if the basis of humanity is the human being, then whether a parent strikes their child or forces them to earn money, or don't give them food, or even kills them such behaviour is no problem.

2. And is the happiness which I have today also the happiness of others who live at the same time? Can you be happy if your happiness your position is based on others unhappiness?

And does the your happiness of today cause unhappiness to you tomorrow?

If so that is 'selfishness' or 'inhumanity'.

3. Man/woman is not happy when he/she rejects God and wants to do his/her own will. Only when he/she is in God and with God is happiness possible. In Genesis chapter 2, 3, even though the first man and woman (Adam and Eve) wanted to do (to eat the fruit of the tree of good and evil) their own will (to be same as God) they felt shame and lost happiness they had until that time (by being expelled from the paradise) rather than achieving the happiness which they wanted.

4. Therefore, although we may have had grievous sins, if we wish to return to Him. He always receives us. Do not be disheartened and give up your life because you are discouraged and a shamed of yourself. We should emphasize the love of God who waits for us like this so that we can return to Him with faith and confidence and live in the happiness of God again.

* Remarks - Please note in the following scripture passage concerning 'the love of the Father and the joy of the Father' how the Father rather than disinterest on partiality towards its elder son, stresses the fact of the Father's love and the happiness of living with the Father.

WORD Son who was dead, has come to life again God's love (Lk 15,11-32)

15 11A certain man had two sons; 12and the younger of them said to his father, "Father, give me the share of the estate that falls to me." And he divided his wealth between them. 13"And not many days later, the younger son gathered everything together and went on a journey into a distant country, and there he squandered his estate with loose living. 14Now when he had spent everything, a severe famine occurred in that country, and he began to be in need. 15And he went and attached himself to one of the citizens of that country, and he sent him into his fields to feed swine. 16And he was longing to fill his stomach with the pods that the swine were eating, and no one was giving (anything) to him. 17But when he came to his senses, he said, 'How many of my father's hired men have more than enough bread, but I am dying here with hunger! 18I will get up and go to my father, and will say to him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight; 19I am no longer worthy to be called your son; make me as one of your hired men."' 20And he got up and came to his father. But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him, and felt compassion (for him,) and ran and embraced him, and kissed him. 21And the son said to him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven and in your sight; I am no longer worthy to be called your son." 22But the father said to his slaves, "Quickly bring out the best robe and put it on him, and put a ring on his hand and sandals on his feet; 23and bring the fattened calf, kill it, and let us eat and be merry; 24for this son of mine was dead, and has come to life again; he was lost, and has been found." And they began to be merry.

25Now his older son was in the field, and when he came and approached the house, he heard music and dancing. 26And he summoned one of the servants and (began) inquiring what these things might be. 27And he said to him, 'Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf, because he has received him back safe and sound.' 28But he became angry, and was not willing to go in; and his father came out and (began) entreating him. 29But he answered and said to his father, 'Look! For so many years I have been serving you, and I have never neglected a command of yours; and (yet) you have never given me a kid, that I might be merry with my friends; 30but when this son of yours came, who has devoured your wealth with harlots, you killed the fattened calf for him.' 31And he said to him, ("My) child, you have always been with me, and all that is mine is yours. 32But we had to be merry and rejoice, for this brother of yours was dead and (has begun) to live, and (was) lost and has been found."


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. We can understand God's love from the father in this Gospel. Listening to these words of Jesus, what do you think and feel about God?


1. Did you ever have the feeling that you wanted to leave home and live alone and do as you pleased, like the younger son in this Gospel? When? What happened?

Or in, what way do you admit to yourself, "I am just the younger son who left God, the Creator and return to Him"?

2. Did you ever have the feeling of the elder son? Let's share together.

3. If we will are far from God, He will wait for us patiently like the father in this Gospel until we return to Him. Did you ever feel this love of God through others or in the bottom of your heart?


1. The younger son wanted to live alone and do as he pleased. But he could not live as he thought and planned. What is the reason?

And how about his family? (please judge connection with your case)

2. "(My) child, you have always been with me, and all that is mine is yours." God gave to each one of us his precious life, joy, love, peace, gentle, reconciliation, forgiveness etc. Do you accept your life as the gifts of God and live accordingly? And do you accept as gifts, not only the good but also the suffering, mourning, sadness?

3. What relation do you have with your neighbors? Are you a gift for your neighbor? Or on the other hand, do you ask your neighbor or expect him be a gift for you?

ACT What shall you do live order to live in God's love?

NEXT If you believe in the Lord you can hear the call of the Lord. Why does the Lord call you? What does the Lord want you?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Man is a gift.

It is hatred and death to love oneself.

When love is directed towards others, this is the beginning of life.


* Let's picture in your mind 'the father awaiting the younger son's return home' or 'the father welcoming the younger son' or 'the father pleading with the elder son', and dwell in this love for a while.


Lesson 23 Follow me!

KEY POINT The call to discipleship and the serving apostolate.

LEARNING vocation and response the lay apostleship

1. Jesus is calling the disciples as 'the fishers of men.'

2. Jesus called the disciples

1) to be with Him

2) to send them out to preach

3) to give them authority to drive out demons.

So He asks them to save people.

3. If anyone wishes to come after the Lord,

1) let him deny himself,

2) and take up his cross daily,

3) and follow the Lord and the way of the Lord.

4. Jesus came to love, to die on behalf of the people, and to serve them rather than to be served by them. So the apostles must live a life of service just as Jesus did.

WORD Twelves Apostles (Mk 1,16-18)

1 16And as He was going along by the Sea of Galilee, He saw Simon and Andrew, the brother of Simon, casting a net in the sea; for they were fishermen. 17And Jesus said to them, "Follow Me, and I will make you become fishers of men." 18And they immediately left the nets and followed Him.

(Mk 3,13-19)

3 13And He went up to the mountain and summoned those whom He Himself wanted, and they came to Him. 14And He appointed twelve, that they might be with Him, and that He might send them out to preach, 15and to have authority to cast out the demons. 16And He appointed the twelve: Simon (to whom He gave the name Peter), 17and James, the (son) of Zebedee, and John the brother of James (to them He gave the name Boanerges, which means, "Sons of Thunder"); 18and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the (son) of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Zealot; 19and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him.

Following Jesus (Lk 9,23-25)

9 23If anyone wishes to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow Me. 24For whoever wishes to save his life shall lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake, he is the one who will save it. 25For what is a man profited if he gains the whole world, and loses or forfeits himself?

One who serve will become great. (Mt 20, 26b-28)

20 26Jesus said, "whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant, 27and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be your slave; 28just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many."


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. My Baptism is the sign of my belief in the love of Jesus and my will to be a disciple. So that sign is my response to Jesus' calling of 'follow me!' Why did Jesus call the apostles?

SEE What must you renounce following Jesus? What is your cross? Let's share the anxieties that arose in our hearts as we studied the christian doctrine.

JUDGE The disciples whom Jesus called were fishermen. So Jesus said, "Follow Me, and I will make you become fishers of men." What will the Lord say to you when the Lord calls you? How can you lead the people to the Lord through your work/role?

ACT In order to lead people to God, who are the people I must serve? How can I serve them in actual practice? By what means? Let's promise to take the easiest means among these and put it to practise so that we can review and shame the results next week.

NEXT What is the most necessary food for your living?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 24 I am the bread of Life

KEY POINT Jesus gives his body to be our food.

LEARNING the bread of life

1. God Yahweh fed the Jews who escaped from the slavery in Egypt to adore God in desert. The Jews by eating this food 'manna', came to know God more deeply and to Him adore as the Lord more fully.

2. Jesus seeing that a great multitude was coming to Him, thought, "I must give them bread." He is the Lord who possessed the merciful love of God.

3. The Lord who fed 5,000 persons with the five barley loves and two fish which one lad had, receives our little effort and sincerity with joy, and fulfills his work through them. So we shouldn't be ashamed or give up like Philip. Rather we should, offer our little effort and ask the Lord to increase and multiply it.

4. And those who share the food of Jesus are ourselves. God entrusts the poor, to us, and asks that care for them, and beseech Jesus on their behalf.

5. Lord intend this food for those who do not come to Him. So we can share what the Lord has given us with our neighbors more and more. Because the Lord fills to us again and again.

6. The Lord gives Himself (life, word, body) as the food of our lives and the offering for forgiveness of our sin to save us,

7. By eating this delicious, nourishing food of the Lord (the Blessed Sacrament) as our true food. We become the people of God and we receive the power to live eternally.

WORD God Himself feed the Israel (Ex 16,4.31.35)

16 4The Lord said to Moses, "Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day's portion every day, that I may test them, whether or not they will walk in My instruction. 31And the house of Israel named it manna, and it was like coriander seed, white; and its taste was like wafers with honey. 35And the sons of Israel ate the manna forty years, until they came to an inhabited land; they ate the manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan.

the miracles for five thousand persons (Jn 6,5-15)

6 5Jesus therefore lifting up His eyes, and seeing that a great multitude was coming to Him, said to Philip, "Where are we to buy bread, that these may eat?" 6And this He was saying to test him; for He Himself knew what He was intending to do. 7Philip answered Him, "Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, for everyone to receive a little." 8One of His disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, said to Him, 9"There is a lad here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are these for so many people?" 10Jesus said, "Have the people sit down." Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand. 11Jesus therefore took the loaves; and having given thanks, He distributed to those who were seated; likewise also of the fish as much as they wanted. 12And when they were filled, He said to His disciples, "Gather up the leftover fragments that nothing may be lost." 13And so they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with fragments from the five barley loaves, which were left over by those who had eaten. 14When therefore the people saw the sign which He had performed, they said, "This is of a truth the Prophet who is to come into the world." 15Jesus therefore perceiving that they were intending to come and take Him by force, to make Him king, withdrew again to the mountain by Himself alone.

The Bread of Life (Jn 6,54-58.66)

6 54"He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 55For My flesh is true food, and My blood is true drink. 56He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him. 57As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats Me, he also shall live because of Me. 58This is the bread which came down out of heaven; not as the fathers ate, and died, he who eats this bread shall live forever."

66As a result of this many of His disciples withdrew, and were not walking with Him anymore.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. The lad in this scripture gave his five barley loaves and two fish which he needed for food to the Lord. How do you feel about this?

SEE What do you to wish offer to the Lord in your society today?


1. Why do you feel called to do this? To what degree are you moved to act?

2. Do you feel the call of the Lord through this scripture?

3. What does Jesus want you to do? Let's examine the word of the Lord in the scripture.

ACT What shall you do together with the Lord?

NEXT The Lord who gives you life!

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


"There is no more to do. I have done all that I can do. But it is not enough. This is the end."

"Not so! There is thing more for you to do. Ask the Lord! He will be with you and show Himself."


Lesson 25 Take courage, it is I;

do not be afraid

KEY POINT Jesus is the Lord of the world and of our life.

LEARNING Oh, Lord! The Lord who rules over nature and saves us.

1. The boat which the disciples rode in was in danger when they were far away from the Lord. Even though they tried everything they couldn't escape this danger. But they were saved from this danger when the Lord was with them.

1) Danger is present when one is far from the Lord.

2) The Lord well knows our dangers/troubles.

3) The disciples wanting to solve their problem by themselves, didn't seek the Lord, and so thought the coming Lord was a 'ghost' and didn't welcome Him.

4) The disciples were saved when they accepted Jesus as the Lord.

5) Danger disappeared the moment the disciples are with the Lord.

2. "It is I; (do not be afraid)"

This expression is the way God reveals Himself to his people. God used this expression when He taught His name to Moses, "It's I (ԥԣԯ ԥԩԬԩ)" (God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM"; and He said, "Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, 'I AM has sent me to you.'" Ex 3,14)

3. The boat in the scripture represents the 'Church' which is 'the meeting place of those who believe in the Lord'

Sometimes, even though believing in the Lord and gathering in His name, troubles/temptations is occur because we do not accept the Lord fully and rightly as either individuals (me) or a group (Church). But let's learn to follow the Lord even though we can see Him at such times only dimly.

Even though we fall into the water like Peter, we should seek the Lord again. Seek the Lord, don't be discouraged, or disheartened or give up. The Lord knows all our difficulties, and comes to save us. See and accept the Lord.

WORD Jesus walks on the water (Mt 14,22-33)

14 22Jesus made the disciples get into the boat, and go ahead of Him to the other side, while He sent the multitudes away. 23And after He had sent the multitudes away, He went up to the mountain by Himself to pray; and when it was evening, He was there alone. 24But the boat was already many stadia away from the land, battered by the waves; for the wind was contrary. 25And in the fourth watch of the night He came to them, walking on the sea. 26And when the disciples saw Him walking on the sea, they were frightened, saying, "It is a ghost!" And they cried out for fear. 27But immediately Jesus spoke to them, saying, "Take courage, it is I; do not be afraid." 28And Peter answered Him and said, "Lord, if it is You, command me to come to You on the water." 29And He said, "Come!" And Peter got out of the boat, and walked on the water and came toward Jesus. 30But seeing the wind, he became afraid, and beginning to sink, he cried out, saying, "Lord, save me!" 31And immediately Jesus stretched out His hand and took hold of him, and said to him, "O you of little faith, why did you doubt?" 32And when they got into the boat, the wind stopped. 33And those who were in the boat worshiped Him, saying, "You are certainly God's Son!"

SHARING Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?


1. "When Jesus got into the boat, the wind stopped." Have you ever solved your problems by being with the Lord?"

2. Did you ever ignore the appeal or the word of the Lord which is arose in your mind? What was the result of this?

JUDGE What does "being with the Lord" mean?

ACT Let's accept the lord in my own private work and in that of my community. Let's invite the Lord to be with me and to save me.

NEXT What and how shall you pray to the Lord?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!

* Contemplative Prayer

Let's meditate and contemplate on the words above in some calm and quiet place, and experience the Lord who holds our hands and saves us.


Lesson 26 Thy will be done,

On earth as it is in heaven

KEY POINT Learning the Will and the love of Jesus through the Lord's Prayer which Jesus taught, we should forgive and love others for the love of Jesus who forgave us and so live be happily.

LEARNING We see God Our Father, the world in which we live and our neighbors all together. Herein we should pay attention to the things which we ask of God and which God asks of us at the same time. This is just the way of life, which leads to eternal life.

The world which Jesus lived in was a world dominated by the Rome an empire. So Jews wanted a savior to come (Lesson 28 reference). Therefore they didn't accept Jesus even though he taught the true human values and the way to life and performed miracles. Rather they saw Jesus as a obstacle to the expectations and so started a movement to get rid of Him.

In this miserable world, the Lord prayed God the Father. "Thy will be done Father, forgive and save them; for they do not know what they are doing."

* The Lord's Prayer

(reference in the Lord's Prayer written by Leonard Boff)

1. "Our Father who art in heaven" - If God were on earth men/women would want to control Him as they wished. So it is written "in Heaven" because God cannot be controled by anyone. Whenever things are hard and difficult, though He who can not be controlled is in heaven, at the same time He Our Father is with us and cares for us.

(* May "All of the world recognize and praise the Father as God." - In order to change a world that uses others for its private or public benefit, all men/women should believe in and praise God.. This phrase is a cry of hope and the prayer of puting into the practice, our christian convictions)

2. "Hallowed be Thy name" (holy be your name) - Knowing God's name is knowing God Himself. (Ex. 3 chapter reference) This phrase asks that God and the God's Will be clearly known and done in society. Today God also shows himself to those who call upon Him. So His name is glorified in their hearts. (Jn 17,3-5 reference)

3. "Thy kingdom come" - The kingdom of God is not a place or an area but God being with, his people being known and ruling over them. Therefore this is a petition that God may rule this world and show His capability in us and in this world and also it asks that we live rightly. And it also foretells the last judgement because the kingdom of the Father will come in the end although men/women may refuse it.

4. "Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven" - This is a pledge that offers oneself to God to bravely overcome the temptations of hopelessness, hatred and revenge. For the more men/women believe in the power of God's love and have a conviction of the mercy of God, the more can they overcome their own weakness and human evil. (Mt 26,38-44)

5. "Give us this day our daily bread" - Give daily food today to those who are hungry because of lack of food. And give your word and the bread of live to those in the world who desire the word of eternal truth. By these foods we live, as children of God and are enabled to share with our neighbors eternal food in the kingdom of God.

6. "forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors" - Lord, don't return evil for evil and do forgive us!

"Lord, forgive the evil of those who afflicted me when your judge them on the last day. Make me never do evil to others and forgive my wrongs which I have done by sometimes ignoring and passing by those who asked me for help or consolation."

7. "do not lead us into temptation" - In the uncertain future life which is unknown, may man/woman, privately and in groups, live not according to the body (Gal 5,19-20) but according to the spirit (Gal 5,22-23).

"Each one is tempted when he is carried away and enticed by his own lust." (James 1,14)

"Do not lead us to the temptation whereby we want to blame and revenge those who have afflicted us."

8. "but deliver us from evil" - Deliver us from 'the situation of sin' which is called 'the sin of the world' (structured evil).

9. "Amen" - Come to us and enable us to say, "Amen." (So be it.)

WORD The Lord's Prayer (Mt 6,7-15).

6 7And when you are praying, do not use meaningless repetition, as the Gentiles do, for they suppose that they will be heard for their many words. 8Therefore do not be like them; for your Father knows what you need, before you ask Him. 9Pray, then, in this way:

Our Father who art in heaven,

Hallowed be Thy name.

10Thy kingdom come.

Thy will be done,

On earth as it is in heaven.

11Give us this day our daily bread.

12And forgive us our debts,

as we also have forgiven our debtors.

13And do not lead us into temptation,

but deliver us from evil.

[For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. Amen.]

14For if you forgive men for their transgressions, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 15But if you do not forgive men, then your Father will not forgive your transgressions.


1. Is there any word among the Lord's prayer which you?

2. Let's call the name "God!" or "Jesus!". What did you think or feel as you called Him?

3. Did you ever pray to God thinking he was the only One who could help you? If so, when and why?

4. What did Jesus say we have to do if we want to be forgiven our wrongs by God our Father?


1. Jesus asked 'Give us this day our daily bread' for the hungry in the world. Is there anyone who is hungry among the people you know?

2. Did you ever feel, "we are really one family" when you ate together as a family in your home? If not, why not? (this question concerns food and the common table.)

3. Is there anyone whom you should forgive now?

4. Although we don't want to, we sometimes sin through habit without awareness of doing wrong. If we sin we fall into the control of the devil and are separated from God. What are the habitual wrongs that you want to change?

5. If the devil dominates you, you will be slow to reconcile and change although you want to reconcile and change. Did you ever experience this? When? Now? If now, how can you meet God again and live happily? Think about this and share your thoughts with your friends.


1. What is the will of God for you today?

2. Why did the Lord tell us to forgive the faults of others

ACT Let's pray the Lord's Prayer often. Let's pray the Lord's Prayer in difficult situations. And seek the will of the Lord and respond to His call and pray that the kingdom of the Lord may come.

NEXT The Lord, the author and the lord of the life who overcame the power of the death and enabled the dead to rise again.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 27 I am the resurrection, the life

KEY POINT Jesus, the Lord of our life.

LEARNING Jesus, the resurrection and the life

1. Suffering is for showing the glory of God. Suffering is not a result of sin or a punishment, but the providence of God which manifests the glory of God.

In Jn chapter 9 verse 3, the disciples asked Jesus, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he should be born blind?" Jesus answered, "(It was) neither (that) this man sinned, nor his parents; but (it was) in order that the works of God might be displayed in him."

So suffering is a moment of the grace of the coming of God. It completes what is lacking in Christ's afflictions with one's own suffering. (Gol 1,24)

2. Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead in preparation for His own resurrection. We can see a spiritual meaning in 'the resurrection of Lazarus'. The resurrection means not only rising again physically but also changing the person and becoming a new body. Faith enables a person to forsake an evil way of life; to accept the life of grace and subsequently to live the new life of resurrection.

WORD Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead (Jn 11,3-4.17.21-27.34-44)

11 3The sisters therefore sent to Him, saying, "Lord, behold, he whom You love is sick." 4But when Jesus heard it, He said, "This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God may be glorified by it."

17So when Jesus came, He found that he had already been in the tomb four days. 21Martha therefore said to Jesus, "Lord, if You had been here, my brother would not have died. 22"Even now I know that whatever You ask of God, God will give You." 23Jesus said to her, "Your brother shall rise again." 24Martha said to Him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day." 25Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me shall live even if he dies, 26and everyone who lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?" 27She said to Him, "Yes, Lord; I have believed that You are the Christ, the Son of God, (even) He who comes into the world."

34and said, "Where have you laid him?" They said to Him, "Lord, come and see." 35Jesus wept. 36And so the Jews were saying, "Behold how He loved him!" 37But some of them said, "Could not this man, who opened the eyes of him who was blind, have kept this man also from dying?"

38Jesus therefore again being deeply moved within, came to the tomb. Now it was a cave, and a stone was lying against it. 39Jesus said, "Remove the stone." Martha, the sister of the deceased, said to Him, "Lord, by this time there will be a stench, for he has been (dead) four days." 40Jesus said to her, "Did I not say to you, if you believe, you will see the glory of God?" 41And so they removed the stone. And Jesus raised His eyes, and said, "Father, I thank Thee that Thou heardest Me. 42And I knew that Thou hearest Me always; but because of the people standing around I said it, that they may believe that Thou didst send Me." 43And when He had said these things, He cried out with a loud voice, "Lazarus, come forth." 44He who had died came forth, bound hand and foot with wrappings; and his face was wrapped around with a cloth. Jesus said to them, "Unbind him, and let him go."


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. Reading this Gospel, let's share the words of Jesus in verses 25-26.


1. Jesus said, "I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me shall live even if he dies." Will you live by receiving the life of the Lord again? And are there men/women around you who have faith and live this new life?

2. Jesus saw Lazarus who came out the tomb and said, "Unbind him, and let him go." Do you find thing which should be loosed in your life or the life of any friend?


1. In verse 37 Martha said to Jesus, "Yes, Lord; I believe that You are the Christ, the Son of God, (even) He who comes into the world." Do you believe this, too?

2. In verse 39 Martha said to Jesus, "Lord, by this time there will be a stench, for he has been (dead) four days." Are there any fixed habits or character defects which are difficult to change in your life? Can you change these by accepting the Lord?

ACT What efforts will you exert to follow the way which the Lord has shown you by light of His grace?

NEXT Who is Jesus and why should he have died?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Martha and Mary the sisters of Lazarus who lived in the village of Bethany.

In Lk chapter 10 verse from 38 to 42, Martha who was distracted with all her preparations; and she came up (to Jesus,) asked the Lord "Lord, do You not care that my sister (Maria who moreover was listening to the Lord's word, seated at His feet)h as left me to do all the serving alone? Then tell her to help me." But the Lord answered and said to her, "Martha, Martha, you are worried and bothered about so many things; but (only) a few things are necessary, really (only) one, for Mary has chosen the good part, which shall not be taken away from her." So He emphasize the listening the will and the word of the Lord (the study of the scripture and meditative and contemplative prayer) is more important as much as the act.

Some scholar see 'the woman caught in adultery' in John chapter 8 verse from 1 to 11 as Mary. And Mary took a pound of very costly perfume of pure nard, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped His feet with her hair. Jesus therefore said, "Let her alone, in order that she may do it for the day of My burial."


Lesson 28 Who do you say that I am?

KEY POINT In the profession of faith concerning Jesus, let us try to discover the historical background of His death and His identity.

LEARNING the background of passion - the profession of the identity, profession of faith

1. The identity of Jesus Christ - "Whom do peoples say I am?"

1) "John the Baptist" - He condemned powerfully the sins (eg the invalid marriage of Herod) of the people at that time and preached conversion and return again to God. He brought the word of God to the Jews.

The people knew him as a man of God who taught, "How can we serve God in this present age?

2) "Elijah" - He was the prophet who proved the absolute superiority of God to king Ahab and to the people who believed in the gods and culture of the pagans, following the lead the queen, Jezebel. In the farming culture He compared the Baals, who are the gods that give good crops, to Yahweh who is the only God and the Lord, whom the people should believe in and who asks them to walk the way of true faith. He was the man who did not die and went up the heaven so the people expected him to come down again and save them in the name of God.

Elijah. was the prophet who make the people choose to walk the way of true faith instead of choosing a God who gives material goods.

3) "one of the former prophets" - It seems to mean 'Moses.' Moses is the prophet who liberated the Hebrews from the slavery of Egypt. He was a man of God who saw God face to face. At the last day he was expected to come to save Israel in the name of God.

They thought Jesus was this prophet and expected Him to liberate them from the domination of Rome as Moses liberated their ancestors from the domination of Egypt. This was caused by the expectation of a political Messiah.

2. The Christ, the Son of the living God

1) 'the living God' - God knows the suffering of marginal humans. He suffers with us because of his love, hears all of the wishes and desires of people and is living with and breathing in us.

* Examples of errors and disinterestedness about God.

God is happy Himself in heaven, He doesn't relate with human suffering of and He only is holy One.

God created the world and doesn't intervene in the history of the human race.

2) The etymology and the meaning of the word "Christ"

'Christ' means "the King who is anointed with oil, blessed and appointed king" in Greek. This word is translated 'Messiah' in the Old Testament. The meaning and the content can be explained as 'the savior.' (the Lord who will save the world.)

From ancient times kings, priests or prophets were blessed by anointing with oil. This gave them power and the help of God to rule and lead the people. So the word of 'the One who was anointed with oil' means the God who saves the people.

In Jesus day He whom the people called 'the Messiah' in Hebrew and 'the Christ' in Greek was "the One who is sent by God to save the people."

Therefore christians receive the Holy Spirit when they are baptized and are apostles of Christ.

3. God the Father who gives faith and the Lord who builds His Church upon a rock.

In verse 17, Jesus said, "Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal (this) to you, but My Father who is in heaven." By these words, we know that God teaches and leads us to believe in Him.

And verse 18, "I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades shall not overpower it." By these words, we know that the Lord built the Church, centered on the disciples and entrusted the Church to Peter, their leader.

In verse 19, "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." By these words, we know that the Lord gave the right to forgive human's sin (the right of absolution of Confession) to the priest's community that is descended from the apostles.

4. Though Jesus is the savior who fed fully the 5,000 persons by a miracle, he saved mankind not by the miracles but by enduring the passion and death.

5. Jesus predicts his death and resurrection.

1) Christ had to bear the hate and sins of the people, and give his life to redeem them by His passion.

2) Christ prophesies that He will overcome death, the fate of all flesh, rise again and ascend into heaven.

6. The cause of the death of Jesus

1) Jesus did not fulfill the desires of the people who wanted him to liberate them from Rome and to lead them to a world which is full of material goods. Rather He went among the men/women who were judged to be sinners and outcasts from their religion and society. So He upset the values and the order of their religion and society.

2) By cleansing the temple (Mt 21,12) Jesus showed how wrong the religious leaders were in allowing buying and selling of goods in it. He also said, "I and the Father are one" (Jn 10,30) "I am the way, the truth and the life: no one comes to the Father but through me. If you know me, you will know the Father also." (Jn 14,6-7a) So He was accused as a blasphemer who challenged the words and acts of the religious leaders of his day.

3) The disciples also expected Jesus to be a king in this political sense and so when He was persecuted they abandoned Him.

WORD Peter's confession of faith (Mt 16,13-20)

16 13Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, He (began) asking His disciples, saying, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" 14And they said, "Some (say) John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; but still others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets." 15He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" 16And Simon Peter answered and said, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God." 17And Jesus answered and said to him, "Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal (this) to you, but My Father who is in heaven. 18And I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades shall not overpower it. 19I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." 20Then He warned the disciples that they should tell no one that He was the Christ.

First prophecy of Jesus' passion (Mt 16,21-23)

16 21From that time Jesus Christ began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day. 22And Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, "God forbid( it,) Lord! This shall never happen to You." 23But He turned and said to Peter, "Get behind Me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to Me; for you are not setting your mind on God's interests, but man's."


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. What is the meaning of 'Christ'?

3. In verse 22, Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, "God forbid (it,) Lord! This shall never happen to You." Let's share any feelings this saying of Peter arouses in you.


1. Who is Jesus for me, and what do I want of Jesus? Let's think of my situation in the light of the following examples;

* eg : He will probably give many gifts! - Jesus is like Santa Clause (?)

He will probably give me much money! - Jesus is the bank chief (?)

2. Why did Jesus, the savior suffer? Let's share what you expect from Jesus.


1. Peter, the representative of all christians, was the rock upon which the Lord built His church. In the light of this fact, what does the Lord expect from you?

2. Is what your wish from the Lord in accord with His will? Does your desires come from the Lord? Or, from yourself?

ACT In order to protect my faith in the fact that God has joyfully entrusted His Church to me, what must I do?

NEXT The feast of the Last Supper, and the Mass which is the sacrifice on the Cross repeated.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


The hierarchy This body consists of Cardinals, Bishops and Priests. In the same manner as Peter, the first Pope, and the eleven other Apostles, these are consecrated by anointing with oil and the imposition of hands and they are responsible for the pastoral activities of the Church.


Lesson 29 Take me whom will be given up for you.

Do this in memory of me

KEY POINT God's plan of salvation shows the relationship between the Old Testament and New Testament (ie. the Church:) sacrifices. Jesus Himself became a sacrificial offering to save the people. Celebrating Mass everyday we remember and re-enact the death and the resurrection of Jesus.

LEARNING the sacrifice for saving the mankind - The Last Supper

The Last Supper

the sacrifice on the Cross


Who accepts the sacrifice (Receiver)

God the Father

God the Father

God the Father

Thing which is offered in sacrifice (Offering)

the life of Jesus (Body) which is symbolized by the bread and the wine.

the life of Jesus (Body)

the life of Jesus (Body) which is symbolized by the bread and the wine.

Who offers the sacrifice (Offerer)

Jesus Christ

Jesus Christ

Priest (the representative of Jesus)

1. The sacrifice of Old testament - Passover (Pasch)

God accepted a lamb as an offering to save Israel.

2. The Last Supper and the Eucharist - Jesus gave the bread and the wine as a sign of his body and blood to be eaten by the disciples and to institute the Eucharist. This Last Supper is the prefiguring of the sacrifice on Cross. The Eucharist is the sacrament of unity between God and man. Therefore we receive the Lord through this sacrament; are united to God (the Lord), and our neighbors and also the world, and are sent as another Blessed Sacrament to save the world and to be a seed of wheat witnessing to Christ.

3. The sacrifice on the Cross - Jesus Himself offered his life to save mankind. This is the obedience of man in following the Will of the Father and at the same time it is a sacrifice to God to save mankind. And Jesus is full of the love which forgives and asks forgiveness from the Father for the men/women who did not understand or receive Him

4. Mass - Mass is the same sacrifice as that of the Cross through consecration of the bread and the wine according to the formula of the Last Supper. Therefore the sacrifice is offered again to save mankind whenever Mass it celebrated.

5. Living the Eucharist - Though we live in the world, rather than belonging to the world we should belong to God and put his words into practice. Our everyday lives should be like a Mass, ie an offering to God of our work/our desk can be our altar; our sweat and effort can be our offering. This is to live Eucharistic lives. (At washup time, the sink can be our altar; the water and our efforts can be our offering.)

* Through Jesus' passion the Sacrament which saves mankind then becomes another Eucharist. which is our own lives

WORD Passover (Paschal - Ex 12,21-27)

12 21b"Go and take for yourselves lambs according to your families, and slay the Passover (lamb.) 22And you shall take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood which is in the basin, and apply some of the blood that is in the basin to the lintel and the two doorposts. 23cThen the Lord will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to come in to your houses to smite (your firstborn and you.)"

The Last Supper - establishing the Eucharist (Mt 26,20-28)

26 20Now when evening had come, He was reclining (at the table) with the twelve disciples. 21And as they were eating, He said, "Truly I say to you that one of you will betray Me." 22And being deeply grieved, they each one began to say to Him, "Surely not I, Lord?" 23And He answered and said, "He who dipped his hand with Me in the bowl is the one who will betray Me. 24The Son of Man (is to) go, just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born." 25And Judas, who was betraying Him, answered and said, "Surely it is not I, Rabbi?" He said to him, "You have said (it) yourself." 26And while they were eating, Jesus took (some) bread, and after a blessing, He broke (it) and gave (it) to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is My body." 27And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave (it) to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you; 28for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins.











1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. What is the name of the event in which the destroyer passed over and did not to kill Israel's firstborn?

3. In 12th and 13th verse in 15th chapter of the Gospel according to John, Jesus said, after the last supper "This is my commandment: ( ) one another as I have ( ) you. There is no greater ( ) than to give one's life for his friends." What is the word in brackets?

4. Jesus instituted the Eucharist in the Last Supper. What does the bread and the wine become after they are consecrated?

5. Who celebrates the Mass? To whom is it offered to? What is offered?

SEE Judas betrayed Jesus. Did you ever reject, ignore or doubt Jesus? Or did you betray Jesus by ignoring the call of Jesus (which is expressed) in those who are in suffering?

JUDGE Why didn't people believe in Jesus, the Savior, the son of God? How about you?

ACT Jesus said, "As often as you eat (my body) and drink (my blood,) do this in remembrance of Me." What shall you do after meeting Jesus by eating the Blessed Eucharist?

NEXT the Lord's Passion, Death and Burial

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Passover (Paschal) Feast Festival which is remembering the angel of death "passing over" the houses with the blood of the lamb on the door. When God, Yahweh, inflicted the 10th punishment on the Egyptians that is the killing of the firstborn, He didn't kill the Israelite but passed over them on seeing the blood of the lamb on the lintel and two doorposts. So Israelite were saved and so they immigrated Canaan.

Integrating the Passover Feast with The Last Supper (Jn 19,36 reference) in NT, it is called Pascal mystery which means that Jesus saved mankind from the dead through 'the Eucharist' and 'the sacrifice on the Cross.'

Paschal lamb the sheep which they killed to offer at Passover Feast. It is a custom which applies the blood of the sheep to the lintel and doorposts to separate the Israelite from the Egyptians when God, Yahweh inflicted the 10th punishment on the Egyptians. Jesus is considered as the Passover lamb because Jesus was hanging on the Cross about 3 o'clock pm before the day of Passover which was to prepare the Passover Feast and to kill the lamb of Passover. So Jesus is called 'the Lamb of God'

The body of Christ the Blessed Sacrament (the body of Jesus; the consecrated bread made from flour without yeast). By receiving the Blessed Sacrament the faithful are united with the Lord in sacramental union and receive the strength to win the war of spirit against evil. This is the true spiritual bread.

The blood of Christ the consecrated blood of Christ made from wine which is naturally fermented.) This is the true spiritual wine.

Mass This comes from the words, "The case is decided. Go home" in a court of justice indicating that the "case" is over. The deacon at the conclusion of the Mass says in Latin "ite, misssa est" ie the celebration of the sacrifice (ie of the Mass) is ended. It is from this word "Missa", meaning dismissal, that we get our word Mass. The Church through the Sacrament of the Eucharist, makes present again the work of Redemption, which is most걁 effected through His death and Resurrection.


Lesson 30 Father, forgive them

KEY POINT Jesus bore the sins of mankind instead of mankind itself by dying on the Cross. The Lord saved through his sacrifice on the Cross.

LEARNING The Lord's Passion and death - A sacrifice of reparation/atonement.

1. Jesus who was betrayed

Even though Jesus came to save the world, the world didn't recognize Him, rather they betrayed, hated and abandoned Him.

1) By the disciples - all of them including of course 'Judas' abandoned and denied Jesus and ran away.

2) By the leaders of the people - Even though they affirmed that they couldn't bow or surrender to anyone else because God is the only king of Jews, still they said, "We have no king but Caesar." (Jn 19,15c) and used this as a pretext to get rid of Jesus.

3) By the people - they wanted a political Messiah and so they did not accept Jesus who came to save them as their king.

4) By the authorities - Pilate, the representative of a foreign of nation, and the wise men kept silent in the face of this death too.

2. Jesus who was jeered.

Even though the Son of God, Jesus, who was humbly born as a baby in a stable without any privileges, was jeered by the people, as He foretold, "(Blessed are you when) men cast insults at you, and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely(, on account of Me)." (Mt 5,11) He walked His way with joy. And suffering insults and shame is really the most humble way that believers in God can prove that they are genuinely christian.

3. the sacrifice of the Cross

1) Jesus the human person who asked the mercy of God - the sacrifice of the just man

(Pilate, the pagan judge said:) "Why, what evil has this man done? I have found in Him no guilt worthy of death" (Lk 23,22a). Likewise "the centurion when he saw what had happened, began praising God, saying, "Certainly this man was innocent." (verse 47). Jesus who was sinless pleaded: "Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing." (verse 34).

2) The Savior who forgave the sins of mankind and saved them - forgave by His blood.

When Jesus said at the Last Supper, "this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins." (Mt 26,27c.28). And already He had said that the sacrifice on the Cross is for the forgiveness of sins and the work of redemption.

And in Gethsmane "He (began) to pray that, if it were possible, the hour might pass Him by. (Mt 14,36) He went on saying, "Abba! Father! All things are possible for Thee; remove this cup from Me; yet not what I will, but what Thou wilt." (Mk 14,35b.36). But in the end He accepted the will of God which was to save the human race through His Passion.

And so He fulfilled the will of God, forgave the sins of mankind and saved them through His Passion and death. ("Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise." - Lk 23,43 reference)

WORD Jesus was betrayed by Judahs, suffered and died (Lk 22,39-23,54-56)

22 39And He came out and proceeded as was His custom to the Mount of Olives; and the disciples also followed Him. 42"Father, if Thou art willing, remove this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Thine be done."

45And when He rose from prayer, He came to the disciples and found them sleeping from sorrow, 46and said to them, "Why are you sleeping? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation."

47While He was still speaking, behold, a multitude (came,) and the one called Judas, one of the twelve, was preceding them; and he approached Jesus to kiss Him. 48But Jesus said to him, "Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?"

54And having arrested Him, they led Him (away,) and brought Him to the house of the high priest; but Peter was following at a distance. 59One man (began) to insist (thirdly), saying, "Certainly this man also was with Him, for he is a Galilean too." 60But Peter said (thirdly), "Man, I do not know what you are talking about." And immediately, while he was still speaking, a cock crowed. 61And the Lord turned and looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how He had told him, "Before a cock crows today, you will deny Me three times."

63And the men who were holding Jesus in custody were mocking Him, and beating Him, 64and they blindfolded Him and were asking Him, saying, "Prophesy, who is the one who hit You?" 65And they were saying many other things against Him, blaspheming.

66And when it was day, the Council of elders of the people assembled, both chief priests and scribes, and they led Him away to their council (chamber,) saying, 67"If You are the Christ, tell us." But He said to them, "If I tell you, you will not believe; 68and if I ask a question, you will not answer. 69But from now on the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God." 70And they all said, "Are You the Son of God, then?" And He said to them, "Yes, I am." 71And they said, "What further need do we have of testimony? For we have heard it ourselves from His own mouth."

23 1Then the whole body of them arose and brought Him before Pilate. 2And they began to accuse Him, saying, "We found this man misleading our nation and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar, and saying that He Himself is Christ, a King."

22Pilate said to them the third time, "Why, what evil has this man done? I have found in Him no guilt (demanding) death; I will therefore punish Him and release Him." 23But they were insistent, with loud voices asking that He be crucified. And their voices (began) to prevail.

32And two others also, who were criminals, were being led away to be put to death with Him. 33And when they came to the place called The Skull, there they crucified Him and the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left. 34But Jesus was saying, "Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing." And they cast lots, dividing up His garments among themselves. 35And the people stood by, looking on. And even the rulers were sneering at Him, saying, "He saved others; let Him save Himself if this is the Christ of God, His Chosen One." 36And the soldiers also mocked Him, coming up to Him, offering Him sour wine, 37and saying, "If You are the King of the Jews, save Yourself!" 38Now there was also an inscription above Him, "THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS."

39And one of the criminals who were hanged (there) was hurling abuse at Him, saying, "Are You not the Christ? Save Yourself and us!" 40But the other answered, and rebuking him said, "Do you not even fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? 41And we indeed justly, for we are receiving what we deserve for our deeds; but this man has done nothing wrong." 42And he was saying, "Jesus, remember me when You come in Your kingdom!" 43And He said to him, "Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise."

44And it was now about the sixth hour, and darkness fell over the whole land until the ninth hour, 45the sun being obscured; and the veil of the temple was torn in two. 46And Jesus, crying out with a loud voice, said, "Father, into Thy hands I commit My spirit." And having said this, He breathed His last.

(*Stop reading and meditate on the death of the Lord in silence.)

47Now when the centurion saw what had happened, he (began) praising God, saying, "Certainly this man was innocent." 48And all the multitudes who came together for this spectacle, when they observed what had happened, (began) to return, beating their breasts. 49And all His acquaintances and the women who accompanied Him from Galilee, were standing at a distance, seeing these things.

50And behold, a man named Joseph, who was a member of the Council, a good and righteous man 51(he had not consented to their plan and action), (a man) from Arimathea, a city of the Jews, who was waiting for the kingdom of God; 52this man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. 53And he took it down and wrapped it in a linen cloth, and laid Him in a tomb cut into the rock, where no one had ever lain. 54And it was the preparation day, and the Sabbath was about to begin.

55Now the women who had come with Him out of Galilee followed after, and saw the tomb and how His body was laid. 56And they returned and prepared spices and perfumes. And on the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment.

(*Meditate on the Lord's death for our salvation in silence.)


1. Are there any feelings or words which came into your mind after reading this passage of scripture?

2. What did Jesus pray for on behalf of those who wanted to kill Him as he was being crucified?

3. Reviewing the word of the centurion: "Certainly this man was innocent." How can you connect the death of the just man who is falsely charged and who had no privileges in today's world with the death of the Lord? And how can you say that the death of the Lord saved mankind?

SEE Let's try to feel the Lord who died for you. (You can express this feeling with a word or in a few sentences)

JUDGE Do you believe that our salvation today (living, christian life) is the gift of the Lord?

ACT Whenever the priest proclaims "the mystery of faith" in daily Mass we respond "Christ has died, Christ has risen, Christ will come again." In the light of this response, how will you show forth the death of the Lord in your lives?

PRAYER the fourth song of 'the servant of Yahweh' (Isa 52,13-53,12)

52 13Behold, My servant will prosper, He will be high and lifted up, and greatly exalted. 14Just as many were astonished at you, {My people,} So His appearance was marred more than any man, And His form more than the sons of men. 15Thus He will sprinkle many nations, Kings will shut their mouths on account of Him; For what had not been told them they will see, And what they had not heard they will understand.

53 1Who has believed our message? And to whom has the arm of the \Lord\ been revealed? 2For He grew up before Him like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no {stately} form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him. 3He was despised and forsaken of men, A man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; And like one from whom men hide their face, He was despised, and we did not esteem Him. 4Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. 5But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being {fell} upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed. 6All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the \Lord\ has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him. 7He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He did not open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He did not open His mouth. 8By oppression and judgment He was taken away; And as for His generation, who considered That He was cut off out of the land of the living, For the transgression of my people to whom the stroke {was due?} 9His grave was assigned with wicked men, Yet He was with a rich man in His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was there any deceit in His mouth. 10But the \Lord\ was pleased To crush Him, putting {Him} to grief; If He would render Himself {as} a guilt offering, He will see {His} offspring, He will prolong {His} days, And the good pleasure of the \Lord\ will prosper in His hand.

11As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see {it} and be satisfied; By His knowledge the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities. 12Therefore, I will allot Him a portion with the great, And He will divide the booty with the strong; Because He poured out Himself to death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet He Himself bore the sin of many, And interceded for the transgressors.

NEXT The resurrection of Christ


INRI This means I(J)esus Nazareus Rex I(J)oudaeorum.; ie, the name of Jesus' accusation which was written on the Cross by the Roman governor. The Jews, who claimed that they worshipped the only true God and considered Jesus an impostor, could not accept this wording (reference in Jn 19,21 - they regarded Jesus as a blasphemer because he claimed to do God and so the chief priests said to Pilate, "Do not write, 'The King of the Jews'; but that 'He said, I am King of the Jews.'" Pilate answered, "What I have written I have written.")


Lesson 31 Peace be with you

KEY POINT Jesus overcame death which is caused by sin and rose again. As we believe in the resurrection of Jesus, we become His witnesses to preach the Gospel to the ends of this world and we prepare to meet Him when he comes again.

LEARNING The risen Lord:

Jesus rose again. The resurrection is a light which is called life. Like the morning sun lighting up a dark room and making a new day, the resurrection is the event which throws the light of life on death.

And just as we can not forget the love of a mother in our past lives, even though the love seems lost and dead, still it never died but is alive yet. Jesus, who is Love was killed by men, but by accepting death He fulfilled the will of God. Jesus loved the Father, followed the will of the Father, loved men and endured their hatred. But Jesus overcame the power of death by this love. The evil people thought that by killing Him they could get rid of Him, but the Lord, by overcoming death and rising again, became our Lord.

The first greeting was "Peace be with you." Being loved and accepting that love is to be at peace. "Abide in My love. If you keep My commandments, you will abide in My love; just as I have kept My Father's commandments, and abide in His love. These things I have spoken to you, that My joy may be in you, and (that) your joy may be made full. This is My commandment, that you love one another, just as I have loved you." (Jn 15,9b-12)

Let's go and be witnesses to the resurrection!

1. The first proof of the resurrection is the empty tomb.

2. Jesus rose and appeared first to the women. Although a woman could not be a legal witness at that time, still Jesus sent these women as his witnesses to the disciples.

WORD The Resurrection (Mt 28,1-10)

28 1Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first (day) of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to look at the grave. 2And behold, a severe earthquake had occurred, for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled away the stone and sat upon it. 3And his appearance was like lightning, and his garment as white as snow; 4and the guards shook for fear of him, and became like dead men. 5And the angel answered and said to the women, "Do not be afraid; for I know that you are looking for Jesus who has been crucified. 6He is not here, for He has risen, just as He said. Come, see the place where He was lying. 7And go quickly and tell His disciples that He has risen from the dead; and behold, He is going before you into Galilee, there you will see Him; behold, I have told you." 8And they departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy and ran to report it to His disciples. 9And behold, Jesus met them and said them, "Peace." And they came up and took hold of His feet and worshiped Him. 10Then Jesus said to them, "Do not be afraid; go and take word to My brethren to leave for Galilee, and there they shall see Me."


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. After how many days did Jesus resurrect from the dead?

3. Will we ascend like Jesus after we die?

SEE Are you at peace these days?

JUDGE How does the resurrection of Jesus give new life to you?

ACT Let's witness to the resurrection of Jesus by a life of concrete and active love from the bottom of our hearts. Let's preach the Good News of the resurrection. When, how, what shall we be born anew?

PRAYER Let's pray 'the Apostles' Creed' loudly together.

I believe in God the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth,

I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, Our Lord.

(All bow during these two lines:)

He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary.

He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried.

He descended to the dead.

On the third day he rose again. He ascended into heaven,

and is seated at the right hand of the Father.

He will come again to judge the living and the dead.

I believe in the Holy Spirit,

the holy catholic Church,

the communion of saints,

the forgiveness of sins,

the resurrection of the body,

and the life everlasting. Amen.

NEXT The appearance of the risen Christ


The master questioned his disciples.

"When will a new day come?"

Disciples answered.

"If the sun will rise in the morning", "If the earth does one revolution", "If time is no more"

The master said,

"The new day will come when you can see the people outside your window as brothers and sisters."

PAUSE FOR THOUGHT 2 Pray a prayer of

Let's offer congratulations, and thanks to Jesus, who overcame death and rose again.


Lesson 32 Stay with us

KEY POINT By appearing to the disciples, the risen Christ proved He had risen again and that He was alive again to show His love.

LEARNING the Lord who appeared to his disciples - Appearance

Jesus rose again not with a body which will decay and disappear but with 'the new body' which is integrated with the spirit and will live eternally.

By appearing in a changed new body, the disciples could not recognize the Lord even though they saw Him. But they recognized Him in the breaking of the bread.

By showing Himself to be alive and not dead just as He had foretold, He Himself became the 'Good News' (the Gospel). The Lord who is the Good News, gives assurance of the hope for new life, eternal life, not only to the disciples but to all mankind.

WORD On the road for Emmaus (Lk 24,13-35)

24 13And behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was about seven miles from Jerusalem. 14And they were conversing with each other about all these things which had taken place. 15And it came about that while they were conversing and discussing, Jesus Himself approached, and (began) traveling with them. 16But their eyes were prevented from recognizing Him. 17And He said to them, "What are these words that you are exchanging with one another as you are walking?" And they stood still, looking sad. 18And one of them, named Cleopas, answered and said to Him, "Are You the only one visiting Jerusalem and unaware of the things which have happened here in these days?" 19And He said to them, "What things?" And they said to Him, "The things about Jesus the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word in the sight of God and all the people, 20and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered Him up to the sentence of death, and crucified Him. 21But we were hoping that it was He who was going to redeem Israel. Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day since these things happened. 22But also some women among us amazed us. When they were at the tomb early in the morning, 23and did not find His body, they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that He was alive. 24"And some of those who were with us went to the tomb and found it just exactly as the women also had said; but Him they did not see."

25And He said to them, "O foolish men and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 26Was it not necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and to enter into His glory?" 27And beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures. 28And they approached the village where they were going, and He acted as though He would go farther. 29And they urged Him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is (getting) toward evening, and the day is now nearly over." And He went in to stay with them. 30And it came about that when He had reclined (at the table) with them, He took the bread and blessed (it,) and breaking (it,) He (began) giving (it) to them. 31And their eyes were opened and they recognized Him; and He vanished from their sight. 32And they said to one another, "Were not our hearts burning within us while He was speaking to us on the road, while He was explaining the Scriptures to us?"

33And they arose that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, and found gathered together the eleven and those who were with them, 34saying, "The Lord has really risen, and has appeared to Simon." 35And they (began) to relate their experiences on the road and how He was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. "They urged Him, saying 'Stay with us, for it is (getting) toward evening, and the day is now nearly over.'" Did you ever invite a neighbor who was in difficulties into your home just as the disciples invited Jesus into their residence?

3. By what chance did the disciples recognize the Lord?

SEE Jesus chided the disciples "O foolish men and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! Was it not necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and to enter into His glory?" Do you believe in the Lord who comes to us as the Good News? Do you live this belief in your daily lives?

JUDGE Jesus spent the whole evening with the disciples so that they could eventually recognize Him? Why does the Lord love us like this?

ACT Let's participate in Mass and meet the Lord in the Eucharist. (If you are yet catechumen or are in sin you can't go to Holy Communion) Let's accept the Lord from the bottom of our hearts and be soaked in the love of the Lord.

And let's go into the world and meet the Lord. Let's open our two eyes and find and meet the Lord who is coming as a new One to us among the people.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 33 Men of Galilee, why do you?

KEY POINT The Lord (Jesus) By His passion and sacrifice of the Cross, received from His Father all power in heaven and on earth and so became our true Lord. And the Lord who ascended will return to save us.

LEARNING The Lord who ascended and the belief in the Last Day.

1. The Risen Lord really is our savior and Lord. Only the Lord received from God the Father the true power which was capable of saving us.

"Let's adore the Lord who is the Lord of heaven and earth!"

2. Risen Christ appeared to disciples during 40 days and ascended.

3. We receive the Holy Spirit, the spirit of the risen Christ and live as witnesses of the Lord by preaching the Lord to the ends of the earth.

4. The assumption of Holy Mary and the belief in the Last Day

The Lord called Holy Mary who is the model of faith into heaven. Following Mary we, who believe in the Lord, will also ascend. So death is not the end but the gate to new life and the start of another life.

The kingdom of God is already in process but not completed yet. As an example from daily living, we see and meet the Lord but it is only for a moment. And our joy is followed by sadness and doubt. "For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face; now I know in part, but then I shall know fully just as I also have been fully known. But now abide faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love." (1Cor 13,12-13)

So my death today is love, and this love will be the moment of salvation, when the Lord calls us from this earth. The Lord came to save us and will save us in the future. The Last Day is not for judgement but salvation. Let's live not just to keep the commandments, but let's receive the power of the Holy Spirit, the spirit of the risen Christ and witness to 'the risen Christ.'

WORD Ministry of disciples and the Ascending of Jesus (Mt 28,18-20)

28 18Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 20teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age."

(Act 1,8-11)

1 8You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth." 9And after He had said these things, He was lifted up while they were looking on, and a cloud received Him out of their sight. 10And as they were gazing intently into the sky while He was departing, behold, two men in white clothing stood beside them; 11and they also said, "Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, will come in just the same way as you have watched Him go into heaven."


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. How many days after his resurrection did Jesus ascend to heaven?

3. The Lord said, "teaching them to observe all that I commanded you." What did the Lord command us to do?

4. Who did He say will come and make the disciples be Jesus' witnesses to the ends of the world?

SEE "They were gazing intently into the sky." Did you ever get lost in discouragement and fear?

JUDGE Do you believe that the Lord is the One who saved us from this discouragement and fear? And can you confess that the Lord is the only One who will fulfill wholly your needs and weaknesses?

ACT The Lord said on the mountain in Galilee, "You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth." "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." By what method will you witness the risen Christ?

NEXT Salvation history part 3 The Holy Spirit in the Church

When the Spirit comes we will be!

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!

GLOSSARY The old theological expressions of the Last Day

The Last Day 'the Day of salvation' and 'the Day of judgement'; It can be the day of joy or also the day of sadness.

General Judgement the judgement of all mankind on the Last Day.

Particular Judgement the personal and individual judgement after one's death

Heaven the place which the good go after their death

Hell the place where the evil doers go after their death

Purgatory the place where those who sinned little go for cleansing after their death.


God says, "My favorite faith is hope."

Hope is the smallest of all things drawing all together.

Though faith sees things which are,

Hope sees things which will be.

Though Love loves things which are,

Hope loves things which will be.

Though Faith loves things which are in eternity and in time,

Hope is loving things which will be,

For example, in the future, in eternity

Hope sees things which are not yet but will be.

Hope loves things which are not yet and will be.

- in time in the future and eternity (Ch. Pegi)




The History of Salvation of the World 3

The Holy Spirit

in the Church


Lesson 34 God has made Him both Lord and Christ

- this Jesus whom you crucified

KEY POINT When the Holy Spirit comes, We will be one, and be Church.

LEARNING Pentecost and Church

The one who enables us to know Jesus and the Father is the Holy Spirit who is the third person of the Trinity. The Holy Spirit who is the spirit of the risen Christ, reveals the Lord to us more deeply, and He renews the Church.

So the Holy Spirit enables believers to be changed, to preach God and to continue the mission of Jesus. In this way He is with us in the Mass (breaking the bread), in our preaching and in our building up the christian community.

Recalling the early christian community (Acts 2,43-47) let's try to establish in our own lives this community-way of living.

1. Pentecost and the Coming of the Holy Spirit - At Pentecost, which was a memorial of the liberation of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, of their immigration to Canaan and of the first Pascal meal there, the Holy Spirit came upon the apostles to found the Church Community.

The disciples, who thought they would be killed by the Jews, were shaking with fear and they thought also there was no one who believed in the resurrection of Jesus. Then, after the ascension of Jesus, the Holy Spirit came upon them to make them fully apostles so that they were able to preach bravely the resurrection of Jesus and to build up the Community of the Church.

2. Building the Community of the Church - The disciples 'became the apostles' by the grace of the Holy Spirit. And those who were continually 'devoting themselves to the apostles' teaching' (after their Baptism) and 'to fellowship', 'to the breaking of bread', 'to prayer' and 'to the sharing with neighbor' established the christian community. In this scripture 'the breaking of bread' means the Mass.

3. The Holy Spirit who is with the Church.

The Holy Spirit, through the preaching of the Apostles, established the communities of the Church. He was, is, and will be with the Church and lead it for all time.

4. The signs of the Spirit in the church/community

- Galatians 5,22-23 the fruits of Spirit (private)

- Acts 2,43-47 the common life (Church - community)

WORD 'Pentecost' and the Early Church (Act 2,1-4.36.41b-47)

2 1And when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. 2And suddenly there came from heaven a noise like a violent, rushing wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. 3And there appeared to them tongues as of fire distributing themselves, and they rested on each one of them. 4And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit was giving them utterance.

36"Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ - this Jesus whom you crucified." 41bthere were added that day about three thousand souls. 42And they were continually devoting themselves to the apostles' teaching and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer.

43And everyone kept feeling a sense of awe; and many wonders and signs were taking place through the apostles. 44And all those who had believed were together, and had all things in common; 45and they (began) selling their property and possessions, and were sharing them with all, as anyone might have need. 46And day by day continuing with one mind in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they were taking their meals together with gladness and sincerity of heart, 47praising God, and having favor with all the people. And the Lord was adding to their number day by day those (believers) who were being saved.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. When did the Holy Spirit come upon the disciples?

3. How did Peter address the people?


4. What did those, who accepted Peter's preaching and were baptized, do?

5. Fill in the correct words in parenthesis in the following sentences and read them aloud.

"Now all the believers lived ( ) and ( ) all their belongings They would sell their property and all they had and distribute the proceeds to others according to their ( ). Each day they met together in the ( ) area; they broke ( ) in their homes; they shared their food with great joy and simplicity of heart; they praised ( ) and won the people's favor.


1. The Holy Spirit makes us one. Do you ever feel the joy of unity?

2. Did you ever feel the movement of the Holy Spirit? Did a desire for God ever suddenly arise within you?

JUDGE Do you believe that the Lord is alive and acts even in spite of the structed evil and injustice of the world?

ACT Let's express our petitions and ask the Lord, the Holy Spirit, to come into us and lead us according to the will of God.

NEXT Let's think who God, who is the object of our faith, is.


Let's read aloud the following sentences and pray.

"Come, O Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful"

"and kindle in them the fire of your love."

"Send forth your Spirit, and they shall be created."

"And you will renew the face of the earth."

PAUSE FOR THOUGHT We too have received the Holy Spirit. We know who God is and feel that He loves us. Let's write a prayer asking God to give us the strength and courage to share His love with others and to spread the Good News.


Lesson 35 God is love

KEY POINT The goal of our faith is to participate in the mystery of the Trinity.

LEARNING God who is the Trinity

1. God, Trinity - The Father bore the Son. The Holy Spirit was born in the love of the Father and the Son for each other. And in God, the three persons always love each other and so are united in One God. And this love of God has been extended to us, humans.

The Father gives all power to the Son; the Son uses this according to the will of the Father, returning all glory to Him; the Spirit connects both persons. The Holy Spirit also connects us to the Lord. And so we receive the love of God, Trinity. Under the guidance of the Holy Spirit we, in turn, should extend this love to our neighbours.

2. The first person is the Father, Yahweh, the Lord who created, loved and saved the world with His love. We can call the Father as 'Abba!', 'Father!' because Jesus has made us His brothers.

3. The second person is the only Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ who bore our sins, by sacrificing Himself on the Cross to give us the grace of the salvation.

4. The third person is the Holy Spirit, the spirit of God, who leads us to know God fully, and be united to Him, with our neighbors and with the world.

5. We love each other with the power of faith, which is believing in God and participating in the mystery of the Trinity with glory and joy. So though we should adore God and correct injustices according to the will of God, we should not hate unjust people but try to lead them to the triune God.

* The mystery of the Trinity is 'a mystery of our faith' which is not easy to explain or understand. Let's look at the mystery of love of the Triune God, who comes as a sign of unity and merciful love and let's participate in that love.

For example :

eg 1. - a candle +- Fire - the Father - Love itself

+- Light - the Son - Grace and Revelation

+- heat - the Holy Spirit - Communion and Unity

eg 2. unity of my intellect, will, and action.

WORD God is love (1Jn 4,7-21)

4 7Beloved, let us love one another, for love is from God; and everyone who loves is born of God and knows God. 8The one who does not love does not know God, for God is love. 9By this the love of God was manifested in us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world so that we might live through Him. 10In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son (to be) the propitiation for our sins. 11Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. 12No one has beheld God at any time; if we love one another, God abides in us, and His love is perfected in us. 13By this we know that we abide in Him and He in us, because He has given us of His Spirit. 14And we have beheld and bear witness that the Father has sent the Son (to be) the Savior of the world. 15Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God. 16And we have come to know and have believed the love which God has for us.

God is love, and the one who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him. 17By this, love is perfected with us, that we may have confidence in the day of judgment; because as He is, so also are we in this world. 18There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear involves punishment, and the one who fears is not perfected in love. 19We love, because He first loved us. 20If someone says, "I love God," and hates his brother, he is a liar; for the one who does not love his brother whom he has seen, cannot love God whom he has not seen. 21And this commandment we have from Him, that the one who loves God should love his brother also.


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. The Father always sees the Son and the Son always sees the Father also. As the two see each other as one heart of ( ) like this, so the ( ) overflows like a river. The ( ) which overflows like a river is the ( ) who makes the Father and the Son united in One. Insert the correct words in the parenthsis.

SEE The Triune God, the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit, always love each other, and are united in one God. Have you ever felt as one with all the members of your united family? Have you ever felt the opposite? When?

JUDGE The Triune, God, the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit, always talk to each other and share all their belongings with each other; and so are united in One. Did you unite with family by sharing your thoughts and your activities with each other? When do you feel your family is united? (fellows at factory/office, associations, village neighbors)

ACT Deep faith means participation in 'the mystery of the unity of the triune God'. How will you participate in the mystery of the Trinity?

NEXT Look at the history of Church which is the assembly of all the believers. Even though christians are weak and even commit sin let's show how the Lord, in spite of these failings, works with His Church and draws its members to Himself.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 36 The blood of martyrs is the seed of christians

KEY POINT How would the Lord be with and lead the Church which is the assembly of men/women?

LEARNING The history of whole (world) Church

1. Church of the Apostles' period

- Cf. Lesson 32. and "Acts of the apostles"

2. The Post-Apostolic Period of Persecution and Religious Freedom:

1) After the death of the apostles who lived with the Lord and learned from Him, the Christian community started to record the preaching of the apostles as "the New Testament" for believers. This community spread out and established other christian communities in the Roman empire.

2) But soon christians began to be persecuted in the countries that believed the king was god. Especially the cruel and inhumane persecution and death of christians was continued until 313 AD in Rome. When the Emperor Constantine converted to christianity and in His "edict of milan" gave the right of free choice of religion. By then Catholicism had become the national religion of the Roman empire which dominated many countries. In this way the Church became not just a free missionary activity but a political power as well.

3) Believers considered death by persecution as means of complete unity with Christ. But when the persecution ceased, they sought this unity with Christ in religious life. In this period there were heretics which confused and doubted the difference between the divinity and humanity of Christ, and regarding the Trinity and the nature of Justification (those sinners pardoned by the death of Christ must be judged by those who are sinless).

3. Church of the Middle age

1) By the middle ages almost all of Europe was christianized. At the same time regional Churches were connected with the political entity, 'the Holy Roman Empire'. In the middle ages the one ideology, 'Christian doctrine' dominated politics, economics, society, culture etc. Next the rise of Islam and domination the Holy Land and capture of Jerusalem caused the rise of 'the crusades' where the christian countries of Europe went to war to recapture the 'Holy places'. But it was not a war of religion. Rather it was struggle for hegemony, for human political and economic power under the pretext of religion.

2) In this period, there arose various 'religious societies', such as, hermits, mendicants, pilgrims etc. who sought unity with Christ through contemplative prayer. But the mendicants' societies emphasized only the passion and sufferings of Christ. They ignored the joy and happiness of 'life in the Lord.'

On the other hand ordinary people could not easily follow the spirit and lives of the clergy and religious who devoted themselves to contemplative prayer, penance and reading the Scriptures (written in Latin) in their own languages. Therefore it was regretable that lay believers who endeavored to follow saints who were familiar to them, were hindered from reading the scriptures and following 'the Jesus of the Scriptures.'

3) But nevertheless the Middle ages saw the establishment and development of the basic ideas and cultures of modern times by the Church laws, professional education in the universities including the study of theology and philosophy, sacred music, and sacred art and crafts.

4. Church of Modern times

1) As mentioned above, the Church was involved in the political world. This hindered her showing the true light of the Gospel to the world. The Church also became involved in financial matters. It was given material goods including the large tracts of land etc by countries and governments. Therefore it was seen as contradicting "the lord's love which gave up all to serving humanity."

Many efforts to reform these secular abuses in the Church were frustrated, by the pride and greed of the reformers themselves. This caused divisions and sects in the christian religion. (ie Anglican Church - Church law forbids remarriage. The king of England wanted to remarry and so he declared himself the superior of the church in England and so separated England from the Catholic Church Protestantism - Martin Luther endeavored to renew the church but his lifestyle and teachings were not in accord and so he supported the lords who wanted to become independent of the Holy Roman Empire and separated from the traditional Church.) The causes of these divisions are many but they are the result of a decline in that faith which depends on the Lord's infinite love and forgiveness. Worldliness was also the root of the division of Christianity.

2) These trials made the Church more concerned with the situation by starting to renew itself internally and do missionary work again and so discover the essence of the Church once more.

With the growth of international trade after the crusades and the coming of the 'Industrial Revolution.' Workers and the urban poor were exploited. But the Church did not respond according to the Gospel to their cries for redress and both Church and society failed in their duties. At that time 'atheism', 'the Enlightment' and 'Communism.'

In these confused times for the Church the Lord showed His power through the miraculous, appearances of His Blessed Mother (Lourdes, Fatima). And led His Church to new life in light of the Gospel. And by the martyrdom of missionaries in the World Wars the Church was active in the world. And the Church showed other ways of witnessing to the Lord through Vatican Council's Teachings.

3) In Modern times the Church is involved in the social apostolate through the work of 'the society of Vincent de Paul' and 'Young Christian Worker' These members endeavor to witness to the Lord among workers and the poor who are exploited and are in difficulties. Vincentians give the poor workers not only the word and prayer but also the goods which are necessary for living and YCWs shows the poor workers themselves how to evangelize their own lives and working conditions. These two groups ('charity' and 'justice') are not opposed to each other or superior and inferior to one another. They are two wheels of the same carriage which is called the Church.

WORD Be on guard (Lk 21,34-36)

21 34Be on guard, that your hearts may not be weighted down with dissipation and drunkenness and the worries of life, and that day come on you suddenly like a trap; 35for it will come upon all those who dwell on the face of all the earth. 36But keep on the alert at all times, praying in order that you may have strength to escape all these things that are about to take place, and to stand before the Son of Man.

SHARING Though the Church is the gathering of christians who have sinned, the Lord is with and in His Church and takes care of Her. As you review the history of the Church what thoughts and feelings arise in you?

SEE How can you be with the Lord as you go through life?

JUDGE Do you want to be with the Lord?

Do you want to receive the love of the Lord?

Do you want to be led wholly by the Lord?

ACT The Lord said, "Be always on the watch, and pray." (Lk 21,36) Remembering this, what must we do to be with the Lord, to receive his love and to be led completely by Him?

NEXT The history of the Korean Catholic Church

PRAYER "Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men." (1Co 1,25)


"The blood of martyrs is the seed of the Christian." the words of Tertullian. They mean that though the world persecute and kill the christians, new christians and a more vigorous Church will arise from their sacrifice.


Lesson 37 The history of the Korean Catholic Church

KEY POINT How did God establish and lead the Church in this land?

LEARNING The history of the Korean Catholic Church-Korean Catholic Church was acquired by laymen themselves.

1. Korean Catholic Church was not proclaimed by missionary but established by laymens seeking themselves.

Korean Catholic Church was sought and believed by the South Scholars who were studied the truth in later of Lees dynasty. They had studied the foundation theory of Confucianism, Sung Confucianism, in 1977, and started Catholic which was called as the Western Theory with Lee, Byuk.

2. Korean Catholic Church had already the faith community before the missionary.

In this seminar, they had studied with the book, Chonjusileui, of Fr. Matthew Rici who preached in China. These books was written as a complementary to Confuicianism.

They had prayed regularly during study. And they wrote a poem to explain easily for the general person. After Lee, Seunghoon was baptized firstly as a Peter in China in 1784 and he returned and baptized many persons in Korea.

3. Korean Catholic Church has a baptized believer before the missionary.

Korean Catholic Church was established by baptism of Lee, Seunghoon. And they gathered in Myoungreiband-Myoungdondg Cathedral presently and share their faith.

Because they didnt know exactly about the Catholic, they made a hierarchy, Fake Hierarchy, themselves, and said the Mass and celebrated the Confession and the Sacraments. But they acknowledged it was false, and tried to take a missionary.

4. Korean Catholic Church had already a martyr before the missionary.

There were martyrs by persecuting for the faith in the Korean Catholic Church before a missionary. Paul Youn, Jichoong and James Kwon, Sangyoun wanted funeral according to the Catholic style but their families and government put them to death, so they martyred.

5. Korean Catholic Church was persecuted fourth big times.

Korean Catholic Church was persecuted fourth big times. Fr. Ju, Moonmo and virgin couple Lee, Lugalda etc 300 believers in 1801 and Korean first chairman of layman, Paul Chong, Hasang and Bishop Lawrence Imbert etc 150 believers in 1841, Korean first priest, Andrew Kim, Taegon etc in 1846, and Bishop Simeon Berneux and Chang, Jugi who is the lord of first seminary building, Hwang, Seokdu etc many believer martyred in 1866~1873. 103 believers among these martyrs were established as saints by Pope John Paul 2 in 1984.

6. Politicians of later in Lee dynasty protected their political power to punish Catholic believers as sinners and killed them.

For politicians argued against other politician and took and strengthened political power, they killed other politician to punish a Catholics.

Lee Dynasty separated strictly persons as a man, woman, elder, younger, and high, middle, low class. Because Catholics called each other brothers and sisters except God is only one Father, they were assumed the group to destroy the society, so they were excluded.

Because the Mission Societies of Church didnt understand exactly Oriental Culture and customs, they misunderstood a offering to the ascendant as a idolatry and protected it, so the persecution was strengthened(But now it is recognized).

7. Korean Catholics made a faith town, Kyowoochon, and shared and helped each other during persecution times.

Although strong persecution, Catholics martyred God actively with die.

By the way, Korean Catholic Church made a faith town, Kyowoochon, and gathered and continued to proclaim during persecution period. French missionary, Dallet, wrote those times living, There was no man who died by hungry because they shared food each other even though they were deprived of their all properties and rights and run away in the History of Korean Catholic Church.

8. Acquiring the right for free choice of religion(there is no item in Children).

After continuous persecution, Korean Catholic Church acquired the freedom of religion by the contract between Korea and French in 1886. Until now, Korean Catholic Church have thought what Jesus wants us to do and responded the change of society. Lets lead our church fix and follow the Lords will through our strong faith and love for Lord.

WORDChun-Ju-Gong-Gyoung-Ga(Psalm of adoration for God by Lee, Byuk) õְ氡('̺' )
ͼ Գ׾ ̳  Hello, everyone, listen my word ȿ ְ 󿡴 ӱֳ There is an elder in home and a king in country ȥְ ϴÿ õֳ There is a soul in my body and the God in heaven θ𿡰 ȿϰ ӱݿ 漺ϳ Filial to parent and loyal to king ﰭ Ѱ õְ ϼ The best is adoration to God in the three fundamental principles and the five moral disciplines in human relations, SAM-GANG-O-RYUN. ̳ ׾ ȥ ϸ Being eternal my soul even though my body died η õְ ȥҸ 𸣸 Doing not know the humanity and morality and the adoration to God and the immortal of soul Ƽ ̿ ׾ ̶ Being is trees and stones and dying is hell õִ ˰ һ Although knowing existence of God, do not hold a Buddhist service ˰ ƴϸ ˸ δٳ Unless do although knowing, sinning more and more η õ־ ú񸶼 Fearing by sin, dont say there is no God ƺ ڽĺó ֳ No son who has no father and no shady spot which is no sunny spot ӱݿ ƾ 鼺 ƴϷ Although doing not see the face of king, it is sure people of his country õ ҳ ú񸶼 Dont argue whether you have been go in paradise and hell or not ִõ 𸥼 õ ̾Ƴ How can scholar who do not know that paradise is exiting know that paradise is not existing(If scholar who do not know that paradise is existing, how he can know that paradise is not existing) ú񸶼 õְ Ͼ Doing not argue the adoration to God, and believing in and acknowledging ϼ its a glory in eternal

SHARING Let's share your feeling after reading the history of the Indian Catholic Church.

SEE Do you ever testify yourself or see those who testify to faith in the Lord by their lives? What feeling do you have of this?

JUDGE Martyrs believe the best way of unity with the Lord is the testimony of dying. So they do not fear death, rather they are happy in dying because they expect to meet the Lord. How do you testify to the Lord in your lives?

ACT What do you have to do now according to your sharing in 'JUDGE'.?

PRAYER "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains by itself alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit. He who loves his life loses it; and he who hates his life in this world shall keep it to life eternal. If anyone serves Me, let him follow Me; and where I am, there shall My servant also be; if anyone serves Me, the Father will honor him." (Jn 12,24-26)


Lesson 38 Men will know that you are My disciples,

if you have love for one another

KEY POINT Jesus Christ who is the Sacrament of God, and the Church which is the Sacrament of Jesus Christ.

LEARNING The Sacraments

The Sacraments are the moments when the Lord comes to us. The Sacraments are signs (symbols, marks, indications) of the grace God gives us. So we meet God through the Sacraments.

1. The concept of Sacrament.

A Sacrament is a sign in which the risen Christ shows us His love. And it confers grace (life). - "Sacrament is the sign whereby we can see the love of God who is unseen."

eg - If we see one who wears a Roman collar we know he is a priest. A Roman collar is the external sign of the priest

2. Jesus shows us God by his words and acts. So Jesus is the Sacrament of God. That is, the figure of Jesus who came among us as a man, who loved, wept, was hungry and suffered, is the sign of the love by which God forgives man. And Jesus is the source of all the sacraments, so we call Him, 'The Original Sacrament'.

3. The Church, through the Sacraments, makes God known to the believers and through their Sacramental lives gives witness to Him.

4. The Church continues the ministry of Jesus. By this, people can see the death and the resurrection of Jesus. So the Church is the sacrament of Jesus.

- The Church, the sacrament of Jesus, is the Sacrament which teaches and shows the unity between God and the world.

5. Sacramentals

These are sacred signs which bear a resemblance to the sacraments: they signify effects, particularly of a spiritual kind, which are obtained through the Church's intercession. (Liturgy No. 60)

These are the devotional actions that ask 'consecration' or 'benediction' (or 'exorcism') by offering oneself and all that is around one to God.

eg - Bishops or Priests who are so recognized by the magisterial right of the Church, ask the grace of God through the consecration of man/woman and the blessing of things (cross, statues, rosary, car) or places (chapel, house, factory, office, machine) We should receive the Sacramentals in a spirit of faith and reverence, not as things which are superstitions

6. Then, the Sacraments are for whom?

Jesus spoke about God to all who could see and hear. So Jesus is a Sacrament for all humanity.

The Church is also the Sacrament for all, whether they are Christian or not. If the Church shall live according to the teachings of Jesus, the Church reflects the light of Jesus to all, because Jesus was the Sacrament of God and a life and a light to the world.

But the seven Sacraments are the Sacraments for believers, who believe in God through the Church. Because non Catholics don't know well the meaning of the Seven Sacraments the seven Sacraments and Sacramentals are for the Christian community.

People should be able to find the meaning of the Sacraments through the lives of the believers who have received the seven Sacraments (the Sacramental lives). That is, people see the person of God through the lives of the believers. So the believer who has received the Sacraments is the temple of the Lord which emits the fragrance of Christ. He/she is also the Lord's apostle and missionary.

WORD A new commandment (Jn 13,34-35)

13 34A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. 35By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another.

SHARING Because the 12 disciples lived with Jesus they came to know God through Him. And while they were alive, after Jesus ascended, they preached Him.. Then how do you learn to know Jesus and through whom?

SEE Did you ever feel the Lord is living among us? Let's share if you ever felt so through the example of others, even though it is not through your personal experience.

JUDGE The Church shows Jesus to the people. So it is the Sacrament of Jesus. Then the Church is not just a building or chapel. If this is true, what is our basic meaning, and what is the distinctive feature, of 'Church'?

ACT If we all believe in Jesus, then our assembly is the Church. How will you show Jesus to others?

NEXT the seven Sacraments.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Roman collar a plastic band which is worn on the neck of the clergy-shirts of Roman Catholic clergy

Teaching Office The right and responsibility which the Church has of preaching and teaching the faith according to Jesus.

Liturgy Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosanctum Concilium). Vatican is the 21st general council of the Catholic Church which was held from 1958-1965. It updated the structure and teaching of the Church for the modern world. The documents of Vatican 4 Constitutions (The Church - Lumen Gentium; Revelation - Dei Verbum; Liturgy - Sacrosanctum Concilium; The Church Today - Gaudium et Spes) and 9 decrees (Communications - Inter Mirifica; Ecumenism - Unitatis Redintegratio; Eastern Churches - Orientalium Ecclesiarum; Bishops - Christus Dominus; Priestly Formation - Optatam Totius; Religious Life - Perfectae Caritatis; Laity - Apostolicam Actuositatem; Priests - Presbyterorum Ordinis; Missions -Ad Gentes) and 3 declarations (Education - Gravissimum Educationis; Non-christians - Nostra Aetate; Religious Freedom - Dignitatis Humanae)

PAUSE FOR THOUGHT 1 The Potato of Hankook

"Hankook! Did you ever see Jesus?"


"How can you believe Jesus if you cannot see Him?"

"Well, would you believe if you could see Him?"

And next morning Hankook took the potato which pushed out new shouts and gave it to his companion, saying:

Look, companion! I saw this potato last winter before it pushed out new shoots. and it seemed dead. Then, when I see these green and pretty new shoots, I know this potato has been alive all along and can live a new life. Therefore though you can not see Jesus with your eyes now, it does not mean Jesus is not there. Like the new shoots of this potato, Jesus is waiting for the spring of your heart when you will open your mind to His presence."


"I believe in Jesus, not the Church." - Mahatma Gandhi


Lesson 39 Unless one is born again,

he cannot see the kingdom of God

KEY POINT The Church shows the Lord to the believers through the seven Sacraments. We who receive the Sacraments represent the Lord through our Sacramental lives. And when we receive the Sacraments, we grasp their meaning in our minds and are changed to live with the Lord from the bottom of our hearts.

LEARNING Sacrament - the Seven (7) Sacraments

1. Baptism

1) WORD - "Unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." (Jn 3,5)

2) LEARNING - As the Lord bore the sins of mankind and sacrificed Himself on the Cross, died and rose again, we shall die to our sins and rise again in the Lord through Baptism. That is, we renounce the worldy values and life-style, and are changed to be reborn as completely new persons.

And we become children of God and members of the believing community.

In this Sacrament we accept with joy, life, love, neighbors, nature, etc., as gifts given to us by God. We also receive the grace of putting the Lord first in our lives.

2. Confirmation

1) WORD - "For the Holy spirit had not yet come upon any of them; they had simply been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then Peter and John (began) laying their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit." (Act 8,16-17)

2) LEARNING - Receiving the power to witness to the Lord, just as the martyrs bravely accepted death and were martyred joyfully. So becoming an apostle who will witness to the Lord and the Gospel is the effect of this Sacrament.

3. The Eucharist

1) WORD - "He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day." (Jn 6,54)

2) LEARNING - By receiving the Eucharist, we are united to the Lord and acquire the food necessary for our christian lives. Holy Communion really makes us one with the Lord, with believers and with the world to which we should preach the Gospel. And we shall be as another Blessed Sacrament to the world.

* When you will receive the Blessed Sacrament, you should prepare properly beforehand in body and mind. (the Eucharistic fast should be observed and you should be free from grave sin.)

4. The Sacrament of Penance (Confession)

1) WORD - "If you forgive the sins of any, (their sins) have been forgiven them; if you retain the (sins) of any, they have been retained." (Jn 20,23)

2) LEARNING - This is the Sacrament of reconciliation by which we regain the state of grace which we lost by refusing to love God, our neighbor or ourselves Through this Sacrament, we are forgiven our sins and become the friends of the Lord again. And In this Sacrament, we are empowered to forgive those who sin against us.

5. Holy Orders

1) WORD - "Jesus said to Peter the third time, 'Simon, (son) of John, do you love Me?' Peter said to Him, 'Lord, You know all things; You know that I love You.' Jesus said to him, 'Tend My sheep.'" (Jn 21,17) "You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades shall not overpower it." (Mt 16,18b)

2) LEARNING - This is the Sacrament by which a priest is ordained to love the people of God and lead them to the Lord. This will be received by the one who loves the Lord only, offers his body and soul to Him, wants to live the life of an apostle as a representative of the Lord, and who has completed the regular course for seminarians.

6. Matrimony

1) WORD - "Consequently, they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate." (Mt 19,6)

2) LEARNING - "Married Christians, in virtue of the sacrament of matrimony, signify and share in the mystery of that unity and fruitful love which exists between Christ and his Church; (Eph 5,32) they help each other to attain holiness in their married life and in the rearing and education of their children; and they have their own special gift among the people of God (1cor 7,7; Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Vatican no. 11)" (Introduction no. 1 of the rite of marriage)

Through the Sacrament of Matrimony they will come to be a true Holy Family like that of Jesus, Mary, Joseph of Nazareth and be the light and salt of the world. Apostle Paul compared matrimony to the love of the Lord for His Church. "But as the church is subject to Christ, so also wives ought to be subject to their husbands in everything. Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her;" (Ep 5,24-25)

7. The anointing of the sick (Extreme Unction)

1) WORD - "The apostles were casting out many demons and were anointing with oil many sick people and healing them." (Mk 6,13)

2) LEARNING - This is the Sacrament in which the Lord comes to those in danger of death with deep love, and encourages them with His consolation to face death with courage and hope.

And this is received not just for healing but for participating in the sufferings of Christ by which he saved the world. For this reason, this Sacrament is an integrating and uniting force for loving Jesus more and more.

The baby is born.


He/She becomes a child of God. He/She can call God, "Abba!" "Father!"

The baby grows drinking the milk of his/her mother.

The Eucharist

He/She is united with Jesus. (Communion) He/She receives the power and the joy from Jesus.

The child may totter and fall but as he/she begins to walk he/she becomes stronger.


He/She can witness to Jesus anytime and anywhere in the world.

As a younger brother/sister is born. The child becomes angry, jealous and unhappy.




He/She is reconciled with Jesus, with neighbors and with oneself; and can live happily and joyfully again.

The child is reared and can get married


He/She makes a Holy Family with Jesus' blessing.

The boy who loves Jesus and everybody can be ordained a priest.

Holy Orders

He can be a representative of Jesus.

He can consecrate the Holy Body and the Holy Blood of Jesus and share these with the believers.

The child may become sick.

(Extreme Unction)

The Anointing of the sick

He/She participates in Jesus' suffering to save the world by his own suffering.

(He will meet Jesus in the kingdom of God.)

SHARING Let's talk about the seven Sacraments.

SEE Do you want to accept the Lord?

JUDGE What shall you do to accept the Lord?

ACT In order to accept the Lord let's talk about what things in my life have to change.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Infant Baptism Baptism of a child who is not yet 7 years old but whose parents are practising catholics.

First Communion The first time that a person, 7 years and over, who was baptized as an infant and has learned the necessary doctrine, receives Holy Communion. The term also applies to catechumens (over the age of 7) on their first receiving Holy Communion after their Baptism.

Private Baptism This Sacrament is for the one who will die soon. This can be celebrated by anyone who is Christian or not if the one who will die soon asks it.

The method of celebrating private baptism

- those under 7 years of age : (immersion or pouring water on the forehead) "N. (calling the christian name), I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

- those over 7 years of age : (immersion or pouring water on the forehead) "if you want to receive baptism, N. (calling the christian name), I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

- When you administer private baptism to one who is still conscious, you must teach him/her the 4 Doctrines of the Catholic Church and confirm his belief in them beforehand.

1. The Living God

God created the world, rules over it, is alive in us and will save us.

2. The Savior, Jesus Christ

The only Son of God, Jesus came as a man to the world and lived among us. He bore our sins, died on the Cross, saved us, rose again and is our Lord.

3. Trinity, God

Jesus rose again, ascended, sent the Holy Spirit to us to know and lead us to the Lord and to give us the power to witness to Him.

And the first person 'the Father, God' and the second person 'His only son, the savior Jesus Christ' and the third person 'the Holy Spirit, the spirit of the risen Christ' are one God.

4. Reward to the good and punishment to the evil

It is the way of man to endeavour to walk the way which is shown by the Lord, building the kingdom of God on this earth and overcoming the devil.

* The one who has received private baptism cannot receive the other Sacraments unless he/she learns the regular doctrine.

* The one who administers private baptism must inform the parish of all the necessary details so that a record can be kept of the Baptism.

Supplying of Ceremonies The supplementary ceremonies of formal baptism for the one who was baptized privately.

Certification of Baptism Documentary proof of one's baptism. This is kept among the parish and diocesan archives. Baptisms (including private baptism), Confirmations, Marriages and Extreme unctions all are registered as parish records.

Godparent (Godfather, Godmother) This means the spiritual father and mother. They guide and help the christian lives of those baptized and confirmed.

Eucharistic fast Not eating for one hour before Holy Communion, except for water or medicine. The aged, infirm and their nurses are exempt.

Penance (of Confession) This is the reparation act. Even though the sin of the penitent is forgiven by the formula of absolution of the priest in Confession, he/she shall make reparation for the injury caused by his/her sin by performing the penance given by the confessor.

Doctrine for Matrimony This means the instruction of the bride and groom, before marriage, on the social and religious significance of the Sacrament. Also they must be instructed on the indissolubility of marriage, on purity and on the natural-law method of family planning.

* the preparation for marriage. The person to be married should meet with the priest of the parish in which. he/she is registered. The couple should also prepare the rings and decide on both witnesses to the marriage.

Impediment (to the marriage) The situation in which one is continuously in sin and cannot receive the sacraments.

Extreme Unction the Last Anointing of the Sick

Viaticum Literally means "Food for the last journey." ie The last Holy Communion in this world before his/her death.

Tithe (Denarius cultus) The monthly offering for the support of the Church and to help the poor.

Collection during Mass The monetary contributions of those who attend Sunday Mass, in thanksgiving for the favour of the previous week and in petition for graces for the coming week.

Mass Stipend The offering (money) which is given to the priest to offer a Mass for some special intention.


Lesson 40 Go and do the same

KEY POINT Being able to meet and accept the the Lord should be living according to the word of the Lord as the way to meet Him and to live with Him.

LEARNING Sacrament - Sacramental lives - the practice of love.

1. Eternal life, Salvation, the way of living for ever, is attained by loving God and our neighbor.

* Reference : "By believing that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God: you will have life through his Name." (Jn 20,31)

2. We love not for honor and simple compassion but because of the commandment of the Lord and in His name. So before the work, firstly we should pray to the Lord that He may be able to work through us.

3. The neighbor in difficulties, who is suffering right in front of me, is the one who needs my love. Let's live the Lord's life by responding to his needs and requests. This is really the way we live Sacramentally.

4. The words, "Go then and do the same." mean that it is not sufficient to know that I should love my neighbor but I must put that knowledge into practice.

WORD The good Samaritan (Lk 10.25-37)

10 25And behold, a certain lawyer stood up and put Him to the test, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" 26And He said to him, "What is written in the Law? How does it read to you?" 27And he answered and said, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself." 28And He said to him, "You have answered correctly; do this, and you will live." 29But wishing to justify himself, he said to Jesus, "And who is my neighbor?" 30Jesus replied and said, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho; and he fell among robbers, and they stripped him and beat him, and went off leaving him half dead. 31And by chance a certain priest was going down on that road, and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 32And likewise a Levite also, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. 33But a certain Samaritan, who was on a journey, came upon him; and when he saw him, he felt compassion, 34and came to him, and bandaged up his wounds, pouring oil and wine on( them;) and he put him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35And on the next day he took out two denarii and gave them to the innkeeper and said, 'Take care of him; and whatever more you spend, when I return, I will repay you.' 36Which of these three do you think proved to be a neighbor to the man who fell into the robbers' (hands?)" 37And he said, "The one who showed mercy toward him." And Jesus said to him, "Go and do the same."


1. Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

2. Who saved the man who fell into the hands of robbers? What did he feel for the man who fell into the hands of robbers when he saw him? What did he do for the man who fell into the hands of robbers?

3. What did the priest or the Levite do for the man who fell into the hands of robbers when they saw him?

4. Did the lawyer answer the question, "who was neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of robbers"?


1. Is there anyone who showed you love? Who? When?

2. Let's share feelings of having received love.

3. Did you ever see anyone who needed your help and your love but you passed by on the other side? When? Who?

JUDGE Nowadays, is there anyone around who needs your help and your love? Who is he/she? Why does he/she need your help or your love?

ACT How can you show this person your love?

NEXT The christian life of the laity in today's world.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Levite one of the tribe which was the priestly tribe that offered the sacrifices to the Lord and served as the priests among the 12 tribes of Israel. These lived by receiving 1/10 (tithe) of other 11 tribes' incomes.


Two fellows are walking. One says,

"Are you baptized?"



"Thank you."

"Well, can you recite the Lord's prayer?"

"No, it is too long!"

"Really? Then the hail Mary?"

"I can't do that alone either!"

"Glory be to the Father?"


"Then, how come you are baptized?"

"Well Even though I cannot recite the Lord's Prayer, I was changed! As you know, too, before Baptism I drank alcohol, returned home after 12 every night, had a lot of debts, and had no peace only quarrels. But after Baptism I drank alcohol moderately, I payed all the debts and even though I don't love completely there is little reason for quarreling I became a new man!"


Lesson 41 Mary, Our mother

KEY POINT We can Ask Holy Mary to develop our christian profile and have hope for the Church.

LEARNING The figure of Holy Mary who is the model and ideal of our christian life

1. Mary sought and followed the Will of God in her life: (Remarks Lesson 9) - "Behold, the handmaid of the Lord; be it done to me according to your word" (Lk 1,.26-38)

2. Mary informs the Lord of our situation and asks Him to help us - "And when the wine gave out, the mother of Jesus said to Him, 'They have no wine.'" (Jn 2,3) "His mother said to the servants, 'Whatever He says to you, do it.'" (verse 5)

3. Mary participated in the passion of the Lord - "But there were standing by the cross of Jesus His mother, and His mother's sister, Mary the (wife) of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene." (Jn 19,25b)

4. The Lord gave Mary as a Mother to the Church - "When Jesus therefore saw His mother, and the disciple whom He loved standing nearby, He said to His mother, 'Woman, behold, your son!' Then He said to the disciple, 'Behold, your mother!' And from that hour the disciple took her into his own (household.)" (Jn 19,26-27)

5. Mary prayed for the coming of the Holy Spirit with the apostles and disciples - "And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying; that is, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James (the son) of Alphaeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas (the son) of James. These all with one mind were continually devoting themselves to prayer, along with (the) women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brothers." (Act 1,13-14)

WORD Jesus calls Philip and Nathanael (Jn 1,43-46)

1 43The next day He purposed to go forth into Galilee, and He found Philip. And Jesus said to him, "Follow Me." 44Now Philip was from Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Peter. 45Philip found Nathanael and said to him, "We have found Him of whom Moses in the Law and (also) the Prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." 46And Nathanael said to him, "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Philip said to him,"Come and see."

Jesus changes water to wine (Jn 2,1-11)

2 1And on the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there; 2and Jesus also was invited, and His disciples, to the wedding. 3And when the wine gave out, the mother of Jesus said to Him, "They have no wine." 4And Jesus said to her, "Woman, what do I have to do with you? My hour has not yet come." 5His mother said to the servants, "Whatever He says to you, do it."

6Now there were six stone waterpots set there for the Jewish custom of purification, containing twenty or thirty gallons each. 7Jesus said to them, "Fill the waterpots with water." And they filled them up to the brim. 8And He said to them, "Draw (some) out now, and take it to the headwaiter." And they took it (to him). 9And when the headwaiter tasted the water which had become wine, and did not know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew), the headwaiter called the bridegroom, 10and said to him, "Every man serves the good wine first, and when (men) have drunk freely, (then) that which is poorer; you have kept the good wine until now." 11This beginning of (His) signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and manifested His glory, and His disciples believed in Him.

SHARING Is there any word of the scripture which struck you?

SEE When the wine gave out at the wedding feast Mary said to Jesus, "They have no wine." and to the servants "Whatever He says to you, do it." What situation do we want to tell Jesus about now?

JUDGE Nathanael believed in the Lord through the miracle at the wedding party. Then what will the Lord do after listening to our problems today?

ACT Among the images of Mary in above 'LEARNING', let's choose one to imitate and follow. Let's promise to be true to this image.

NEXT What sacrifice can we offer the Lord who saved us?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Lesson 42 Continuing in the temple,

breaking bread and praising God

KEY POINT The liturgical celebration honoring God, which is the sacrifice which makes present again the Lord's suffering on the Cross and is a memorial of our salvation. It is also the receiving of divine life and makes the participants one with God and each other.

LEARNING the liturgical life

1. "For it is through the liturgy, especially the divine Eucharistic Sacrifice, that 'the work of our redemption is exercised.' The liturgy is thus the outstanding means by which the faithful can express in their lives, and manifest to others, they mystery of Christ and the real nature of the true Church. Day by day the liturgy builds up those within the Church into the Lord's holy temple, into a spiritual dwelling for God - an enterprise which will continue until Christ's full stature is achieved. At the same time the liturgy marvelously fortifies the faithful in their capacity to preach Christ." (Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy no. 2)

2. "Nevertheless the liturgy is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; at the same time it is the fountain from which all her power flows. For the goal of apostolic works is that all who are made sons of God by faith and baptism should come together to praise God in the midst of His Church, to take part in her sacrifice, and to eat the Lord's supper.

The liturgy in its turn inspires the faithful to become 'of one heart in love' when they have tasted to their full of the paschal mysteries; it prays that 'they may grasp by deed what they hold by creed.' The renewal in the Eucharist of the covenant between the Lord and man draws the faithful into the compelling love of Christ and sets them afire. From the liturgy, therefore, and especially from the Eucharist, as from a fountain, grace is channeled into us; and the sanctification of men in Christ and the glorification of God, to which all other activities of the Church are directed as toward their goal, are most powerfully achieved." (no. 10)

3. "But in order that the sacred liturgy may produce its full effect, it is necessary that the faithful come to it with proper dispositions, that their thoughts match their words, and that they cooperate with divine grace lest they receive it in vain." (no. 11)

4. "The spiritual life, however, is not confined to participation in the liturgy. The Christian is assuredly called to pray with his brethren, but he must also enter into his chamber to pray to the Father in secret; indeed, according to the teaching of the Apostle Paul, he should pray without ceasing. We learn from the same Apostle that we must always carry about in our body the dying of Jesus, so frame. This why we ask the Lord in the sacrifice of the Mass that, 'receiving the offering of the spiritual victim,' He may fashion us for Himself 'as an eternal gift.'" (no. 12)

5. The Liturgical Year

1) The Lord's Day (Sunday) - Every first day of each week, ie the day which Holy Mother Church has called the Lord's day, she keeps the memory of His resurrection. (no. 102, 106) In the secular word this day is also called Sunday. (reference in lesson 4)

2) Advent season - 4 weeks preparing for the Lord's coming. This is new year in the Church's calendar. It begins on the Sunday following the feast of Christ the king (Last Sunday in Ordinary Time - about Nov.) and ends by the Christmas (12/24).

2) Christmas season - The season for rejoicing at the birth of the Lord. From Dec. 24th onwards.

3) Epiphany - The day on which the Lord manifests Himself to the gentiles, represented by the magi.

4) Lenten season - The season of preparation for Easter by penitential exercises for conversion (no. 109) During Lent, penance should not be only internal and individual but also external and social. (no. 110). This period commemorates 'the 40 days' during which Jesus was tempted in the desert. Putting ashes on one's forehead and resolving to turn from sin to the service to others. 5 weeks from 'the Ash Wednesday.'

5) Easter season - The season for celebrating the resurrection of the Lord. 7 weeks from the Resurrection of the Lord.

6) Ascension - The day on which the Lord ascended.

7) Pentecost - The day which commemorates the coming of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles - 10 day's after the Ascension of the Lord.

8) Holy Trinity - The day which commemorates the triune God. (the next Sunday after the season of Pentecost)

9) Corpus Christi - The day which commemorates the body of Christ which is given to save mankind (the next week after Holy Trinity)

10) Sacred Heart - The day which commemorates the heart of the Lord which shows us the pouring out of His blood in His merciful love. (the next Friday after second week after Pentecost)

11) Christ the King - The day which commemorates Christ the King (the last Sunday in Ordinary Time)

6. "The saints have been traditionally honored in the Church and their authentic relics and images held in veneration. For the feasts of the saints proclaim the wonderful works of Christ in His servants, and display to the faithful fitting examples for their imitation" (no. 111)

1) Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God (Jan. 1 - Cf. Solemnity)

2) Annunciation (Mar. 25) - Angel Gabriel announced to Mary that she was going to be pregnant with Jesus

3) Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8) - Conception and Birth of Holy Mother without any sin

4) Assumption (Aug. 15) - The Assumption of Holy Mother into Hades

5) Joseph, Husband of Mary (Mar. 19)

6) Birth of John the Baptist (June 24)

7) Peter and Paul, Apostles (June 29)

8) Thomas, Apostle (July 3 - cf. Feast)

9) Theresa of the Child Jesus, virgin (Oct. 1)

10) All saints (Nov. 1)

11) Francis Xavier, priest (Dec. 3)

7. "Sacred music, sacred art and sacred furnishings should show the nature and dignity of the liturgy " (no. 112-130)

8. Prayer is the way and the moment of remembering God, offering oneself to Him, listening to His word, and meditating on its application to everyday life.

WORD Liturgical life in the community of the Early Church (Act 2,46-47a)

2 46And day by day continuing with one mind in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they were taking their meals together with gladness and sincerity of heart, 47praising God.

SHARING Let's share your feelings about the liturgies you have participated in until now.

SEE Do you gain strength by participating in the liturgy?

JUDGE What will the Lord say as he sees you participating in the liturgy?

ACT What effort will make in order to meet the Lord in the liturgy?


Abstinence The traditional custom by which christians 14 years and over, remember the Passion of the Lord by not eating meat every Friday.

Fasting The traditional custom by which christians over 20 years and under 60 years of age, remember the Passion of the Lord on 'Ash Wednesday' and 'Holy Friday' by eating one full meal and two colations daily. The spirit of this is to share with our neighbors the amount of food he/she has saved. "He came home, and the multitude gathered again, to such an extent that they could not even eat a meal." (Mk 3,20)

Visit to the Blessed Sacrament The way of praying in front of the Blessed Sacrament (in the being of the Lord)

Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament The ceremony in which the people assembled are blessed by the Blessed Sacrament

Holy hour The period of one hour spent in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament, exposed in the monstrance on the altar.


Lesson 43 Rerum Novarum

KEY POINT Christian living demands the observance of the principle of subsidiarity by respecting the individual role each person plays in the human enterprise. This follows from the fact that God has endowed the human person with a unique dignity and a sense of justice.

LEARNING The basic principle of the social doctrine of the Church

1. The background of "Rerum Novarum"

1) Historical background

From the year 1400 AD, the feudal system of the middle ages began to decline. This was caused by the commercial revolution resulting from international trade. At first this was done by bartering goods but as commercial exchange began to expand more and more goods became necessary. This gave rise to the factory.

So in 1760, the Industrial Revolution which is mechanized, large scale production, spread from England to Europe. Thus occurred 'the new situation' (RERUM NOVARUM) caused by this Industrial Revolution.

2) Social background

(1) The urbanization and the gap between the rich and poor

By building more and more factories, more and more workers were needed. So happened the phenomenon of urbanization when the farmers who were a farm laborers came to the factories in the cities. As the workers increased so did the working class in society. And there occurred inequality between the employees and the employers. and this in turn caused ethical, personal, justicial problems.

(2) The economic system and human labor

The employers wanted to acquire the greatest profit at the least cost so they paid subsistence wages and made the workers labor in inhuman conditions.

With this aim in mind, the employers influenced labor and legislation to their own advantage lest the power of the company dwindle. The governments were only concerned with stability in society and national defence. This is the principle of free competition and free market ie the 'The (laissez faire) Capitalism' which was proposed by Adam Smith in his 'Welfare of Nation'.

(3) The appearance of Communism (Socialism)

As the workers' lives were miserable under this economic system of capitalism, Karl Marx suggested, "Unite, workers of all nations!" in 'the presentation of his Communist manifesto' in 1848. He advocated the destruction of the Capitalist system and the establishment of the Communist system.

So the Communists maintained that the social problems of its time were caused by the system of private property. They advocated the nationalization of all private property in a system of common ownership (state ownership) in which everybody would share equally. They accused the Church of being on the side of the capitalists. As the Church condemned communism, many workers abandoned it saying that the communist were more interested in their (the workers') plight than the Church.

(4) Church activity

The Church saw the enormous fortunes of the few and the poverty of the masses (Rerum Novarum no. 1), the increased self-reliance, the close mutual combination of the labor population, and the general moral deterioration (no. 2), of the workers who were exploited by their greedy employers (no.6), the public authorities' failure to protect the rights of the poor and the workers (no. 6). The Church endeavoured to address this problem of human labour.

Cardinal Maning of London diocese in England, who had interest in the workers was able to and so could solve the great strike of waterfront workers. Bishop Kettler on Maize diocese in Germany preached on the problem of work in his homilies of the Lenten season in 1848 and endeavored to legislate a law which would protect the workers. Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore diocese in America supported the laborers' union in 1880.

These movements formed the Angers school which was led by Fr. Perin in France and Belgium and the Liege school which was led by Fr. Raimund in Germany. Each of these endeavored to get the state to legislate work-laws to protect the workers. Pope Leo presented formally the first social doctrine of the Church concerning the workers and working conditions, in 'Rerum Novarum' on 15 May 1891.

2. the basic principle of the social doctrine

1) the principle of human dignity

In 'Rerum Novarum', the Holy father's Encyclical letter, the basic principle of the social doctrine of the Church is the dignity of the human person.

When the machine breaks down, it is repaired, or exchanged. But not so in the case of the working man. Work is a means to fulfill the conditions of human living and at the same time a service for fellow workers and society. When the worker is injured and cannot work anymore, can he be treated like the machine? He may be materially compensated by money for treatment of his/her injury. But the human tragedy of injury and loss of his ability to work, cannot be compensated simply by the material aid. And for whom did he work when the accident happened?

When the worker gets a job in the (laissez faire) Capitalist system, where all the conditions are set unilaterally by the employer, can the working conditions of the contract enable the employee to live as a human person? Under the economic principle in which the salary is the cost of the actual product the worker is reduced to being a mere tool in the production process.

2) the principle of justice

(1) Commutative justice

When a child chooses a cookie and buys it for the price shown on the pack, a shopkeeper shouldn't ask more than this price. Because there is an invisible social contract between the producer and consumer, "The just price of this cookie is that stamped on the pack" Likewise when the worker works according to the working contract, his employer should pay the contracted wage. So commutative justice is also called the contracting justice.

But the Church teaches that the employer does not fulfill his responsibility merely by keeping the contract if the salary is less than the worker's living costs. He must give as much as the worker needs to live simply as a person. So if the salary is less than his/her living costs, it is unjust and invalid, even though it was according to the mutual contract, because it runs counter to the spirit of the law of nature. And human work is also for human sustenance.

(2) Distributive justice

God gave 10 loaves to 10 persons. If one has 9 loaves and the others have only 1, it is a violation of distributive justice. So this justice is enforced by the government or state.

Therefore the state should protect the property of and guarantee a decent standard of living for the workers. This is not for the workers only but also for mankind; this is mandated by the 'Common Good'.

The common good which is the goal of human society is not only for the employer and employee but also for the consumer who buys and uses their products and for those who face varying living conditions and situations in this society. This is the ideal.

On the other hand, social justice with regard to property and equal opportunity, also can mean simply the distribution of property. This includes equipment and systems as well as equal access to these for all concerned others.

3) The principle of Subsidiarity

While the principle of justice is for solving quarrels concerning human rights, the principal of subsidiarity is the principle by which in the pursuit of the common good, human dignity is protected.

This principle was first proposed in explicit form by Pius ? in Quadragesimo Anno (Encyclical letter 'Forty years after' Leo 's Rerum Novarum), "For every social activity ought of its own very nature to furnish help to the members of the social body, and never destroy and absorb them".

"Firstly, the human person is the base and the goal of all groups, so any group shouldn't substitute itself for him/her. Secondly, large groups shouldn't interfere in the small group's area. Thirdly, the state should help and encourage the small groups' activities and assist them to complete them as best they can."

Simply put, the parents shouldn't remove the clothes or shoes for the children instead of the children themselves; the teacher should not choose the group leader. Especially, the state should stress democratization and decentralization and ensure that the rights of both worker and union are respected.

3. Application of the mind

In front of this reality, the Church herself has endeavoured continuously to preach her teachings and to apply them. For examples; Fr. Ryan activity led to legislate the work-law of America. in 1930; and the movement for labor legislation in other countries; the education of the Laity; Apostolic Action Associations (Y.C.W.C.W.M.); the establishing of The Institute and Counselling Office for Workers, The welfare system for the workers etc.

WORD The Elements of Conflict ('Rerum Novarum' 1)

"The spirit of revolutionary change, long predominant in the nations of the world, when once aroused, gradually passed beyond the bounds of politics and made itself felt in the cognate field of practical economy. The elements of a conflict are unmistakable. We perceive them in the growth of industry and the marvellous discoveries of science; in the changed relations of employers and workingmen; in the enormous fortunes of individuals and the poverty of the masses; in the increased self-reliance and the closer mutual combination of the labour population; and, finally, in a general moral deterioration."

SHARING After learning the principles of the Church's Social doctrine, let's compare them with your lives.


1. What are the new social problems and situations?

2. What are the consequences of this situation?

3. What are the causes of this situation?


1. What positive or negative values do you see in such probelms/situations?

2. What are the aspirations of those who are living in these problems/situations?

3. What did God/Jesus say or do in similar situations (Bible inquiry)?

4. How do we discover the presence of the risen Jesus in these problems/situations?

5. What call from the Christ do we receive through these problems/situations?


1. What do we intend to do in order to bring a change in these situations? By whom?

2. What process/plan do we make to succeed in this action?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!

PAUSE FOR THOUGHT Unless we all return to the practice of our christian faith, any plan or action, no matter how excellent or efficient, will ultimately turn out to be useless. (Rerum Novarum no. 82)


Lesson 44 Laborem Exercens

KEY POINT The Church regards labor as dignified because the one who is working possesses human dignity. Therefore the working man should be able to live in a fully dignified, human way.

LEARNING The Church's view of human labor.

- The Church's teaching on human labor and its problems

- Encyclical "Laborem Exercens" by John Paul on human work

(on the ninetieth anniversary of the encyclical Reeum Novarum)


Man's life is built up every day from work, from work it derives its specific dignity, but at the same time work contains the unceasing measure of human toil and suffering, and also of the harm and injustice which penetrate deeply into social life within individual nations and on the international level. While it is true that man eats the bread produced by the work of his hand (Ps 128,2) - and this means not only the daily bread by which his body keeps alive but also the bread of science and progress, civilization and culture - it is also a perennial truth that he eats this bread by "the sweat of his face" (Gn 3,19), that is to say, not only by personal effort and toil but also in the midst of many tensions, conflicts and crises, which, in relationship with the reality of work, disturb the life of individual societies and also of all humanity.

There are many factors of a general nature: the widespread introduction of automation into many spheres of production, the increase in the cost of energy and raw materials, the growing realization that the heritage of nature is limited and that it is being intolerably polluted, and the emergence on the political scene of peoples who, after centuries of subjection, are demanding their rightful place among the nations and in international decisionmaking. These new conditions and demands will require a reordering and adjustment of the structures of the modern economy and of the distribution of work. Unfortunately, for millions of skilled workers these changes may perhaps involve a reduction or a less rapid increase in material well-being for the more developed countries. But they can also bring relief and hope to the millions who today live in conditions of shameful and unworthy poverty.

The Church considers it her task always to call attention to the dignity and rights of those who work, to condemn situations in which that dignity and those rights are violated, and to help to guide the above-mentioned changes so as to ensure authentic progress by man and society. (No. 1)


1. The Church sees the labour as dignified because the subject, which is the working man was a dignity created by God - As man, through his work, becomes more and more the master of the earth, and as he confirms his dominion over the visible world, again through his work, he nevertheless remains in every case and at every phase of this process within the Creator's original ordering. And this ordering remains necessarily and indissolubly linked which the fact that man was created, as male and female, "in the image of God" (Gn 1,27-28). (4)

2. Man as the subject of work - By broadening certain aspects that already belonged to the Old Testament, Christianity brought about a fundamental change of ideas in this field, taking the whole content of the Gospel message as its point of departure, especially the fact that the one who, while being God, became like us in all things (Heb2,17; Ph2,5-8) devoted most of the years of his life on earth to manual work at the carpenter's bench. This circumstance constitutes in itself the most eloquent "Gospel of work", showing that the basis for determining the value of human work is not primarily the kind of work being done but the fact that the one who is doing it is a person. Man is destined for work and called to it, in the first place work is "for man" and not man "for work". Each sort is judged above all by the measure of the dignity of the subject of work, that is to say the person, the individual who carries it out. It is always man who is the purpose of the work, whatever work it is that is done by man - even if the common scale of values rates it as the merest "service", as the most monotonous, even the most alienating work. (6)

3. A threat to the right order of values - The Christian truth about work had to oppose the various trends of materialistic and economistic thought (which understood and treated the worker as a sort of 'merchandise.'). (7) By his work, supports himself and his family. But he also perfects himself and serves the whole society through his labor. Therefore the wage (including the leisure and the vacation as a rest) for labor, is not charity but justice. So the wages and life of the working man must be protected.

4. Worker Solidarity - It must be frankly recognized that the reaction against the system of injustice and form that cried to heaven for vengeance and that weighted heavily upon workers in that period of rapid industrialization was justified from the point of view of social morality. This state of affairs was favored by the liberal sociopolitical system, which, in accordance with its 'economistic' premises, strengthened and safeguarded economic initiative by the possessors of capital alone, but did not pay sufficient attention to the rights of the workers, on the grounds that human work is solely an instrument of production, and that capital is the basis, efficient factor and purpose of production. This solidarity must be present whenever it is called for by the social degrading of the subject of work, by exploitation of the workers, and by the growing areas of poverty and even hunger. The Church is firmly committed to this cause, for she considers it her mission, her service, a proof of her fidelity to Christ, so that she can truly be the 'Church of the poor'. (8)

5. Toil - Toil is familiar to those doing physical work under sometimes exceptionally laborious conditions. And it is likewise familiar to those at an intellectual workbench; to those who bear the burden of grave responsibility for decisions that will have a vast impact on society. And yet, in spite of all this toil - perhaps, in a sense, because of it - work is a good thing for man. It is not only good in the sense that it is useful or something to enjoy; it is also good as being something worthy, that is to say, something that corresponds to man's dignity, that expresses this dignity and increases it. Work is a good thing for man - a good thing for his humanity - because through work man not only transforms nature, adapting it to his own needs, but he also achieves fulfillment as a human being and indeed, in a sense, becomes "more a human being". Except the meaning of the virtue of industriousness, when the work is used to punish man with the system of forced labor in concentration camps, and to oppress and exploit man it will be throughout the damage to the dignity. (9)


1. The principle of the priority of labour over capital - This principle directly concerns the process of production : in this process labour is always a primary efficient cause while capital, the whole collection of means of production, remains a mere instrument or instrumental cause. In every phase of the development of his work man comes up against the leading role of the gift made by 'nature', that is to say, in the final analysis, 'by the Creator.' At the beginning of man's work is the mystery of creation. The concept of capital includes not only the natural resources placed at man's disposal but also the whole collection of means by which man appropriates natural resources and transforms them in accordance with his needs (and thus in a sense humanizes them), it must immediately be noted that all these means are the result of the historical heritage of human labour. (12.13)

2. Work and ownership - Property is acquired first of all through work in order that it may serve work. This concerns in a special way ownership of the means of production. Isolating these means as a separate property in order to set it up in the form of "capital" in opposition to "labour" - and even to practise exploitation of labour - is contrary to the very nature of these means and their possession.

They cannot be possessed against labour they should serve labour, and thus, by serving labour, that they should make possible the achievement of the first principle of this order, namely, the universal destination of goods and the right to common use of them. Therefore it shall be accepted 'the socialization, in suitable conditions, of certain means of production'. The proposals for joint ownership of the means of work, sharing by the workers in the management and/or profits of businesses, so called shareholding by labour, etc. (14)

For it must be noted that merely taking these means of production (capital) out of the hands of their private owners is not enough to ensure their satisfactory socialization. We can speak of socializing only when on the basis of his work each person is fully entitled to consider himself a part-owner of the great workbench at which he is working with every one else. (14)

At this time the person who works desires not only due remuneration for his work; he also wishes that, within the production process, provision be made for him to be able to know that in his work, even on something that is owned in common, he is working "for himself". (15)


1. Worker and direct employer, government and indirect employer (many different factors that exercise a determining influence on the shaping both of the work contract and, consequently, of just or unjust relationships in the field of human labour-the labour policy of individual States under the system of the mutual dependence 16.17)are towards the common wealth. (18)

2. Employment - Especially the government should provide the right and chance to get a job for many labourers. It is particularly painful when it especially affects young people, who after appropriate cultural, technical and professional preparation fail to find work, and see their sincere which to work and their readiness to take on their own responsibility for the economic and social development of the community sadly frustrated. The obligation to provide unemployment benefits, that is to say, the duty to make suitable grants indispensable for the subsistence of unemployed workers and their families, is a duty springing from the right to life and subsistence. It must be stressed that the constitutive element in this progress and also the most adequate way to verify it in a spirit of justice and peace, which the Church proclaims and for which she does not cease to pray to the Father of all individuals and of all peoples, is 'the continual reappraisal of man's work', both in the aspect of its objective finality and in the aspect of the dignity of the subject of all work, that is to say, man. (18)

3. Wages and other social benefits - It should also be noted that the justice of a socioeconomic system and, in each case, its just functioning, deserves, in the final analysis, to be evaluated by the way in which man's work is properly remunerated in the system. By 'Social benefits'(medical assistance, right to rest and a pension and to insurance for old age and in case of accidents at work). Among these rights there should never be overlooked the right to a working environment and to manufacturing processes which are not harmful to the workers' physical health or to their moral integrity. (19)

4. Unions - All these rights, together with the need for the workers themselves to secure them, give rise to yet another right: 'the right of association', that is to form associations for the purpose of defending the vital interests of those employed in the various professions. These associations are called 'labour or trade unions.' It is characteristic of work that it first and foremost unites people. In this consists its social power: the power to build a community. It is always to be hoped that, thanks to the work of their unions, workers will not only have more, but above all be more: in other words, that they will realize their humanity more fully in every respect. (20)

5. Agricultural work is of fundamental importance. (21). And 'a serious form of discrimination' that of the strong and healthy against the weak and sick should never be practised on the disabled worker because of the priority of the economic benefit. (22) And for the emigrant worker, the value of work should be measured by the same standard and not according to the difference in nationality, religion or race. (23)


1. A particular task for the Church - Since work in its subjective aspect is always a personal action, an 'actus personae', it follows that 'the whole person, body and spirit', participates in it, whether it is manual or intellectual work. It is also to the whole person that the word of the living God is directed, the evangelical message of salvation, in which we find many points which concern human work and which throw particular light on it. Guidance by faith, hope and charity is needed in order that through these virtues the work of the individual human being may 'be given the meaning which it has in the eyes of God' (we seek from the bottom of heart, 'how does God see labour?' 'how can labour be a part of the salvation process?')

The Church considers it her duty to speak out on work from the viewpoint of its human value and of the moral order to which it belongs, and she sees this as one of her important tasks within the service that she renders to the evangelical message as a whole. At the same time she sees it as her particular duty 'to form a spirituality of work' which will help all people to come closer, through work, to God, the Creator and Redeemer, to participate in his salvific plan for man and the world and to deepen their friendship with Christ in their lives by accepting, through faith, a living participation in his threefold mission as Priest, Prophet and King. (24)

2. Work as a sharing in the activity of the Creator - From a spiritual point of view, firstly, the work of each human being who is 'created in the image of God, shares by his work in the activity of the Creator' (25); secondly, by working Himself, Christ preached 'the Gospel of Work' (26).

A person is more precious for what he is than for what he has. Similarly, all that people do to obtain greater justice, wider brotherhood, and a more humane ordering of social relationships has greater worth than technical advances. Progress and development, the subject that dominates presentday thought, should be understood only as the fruit of a proven spirituality of human work; and it is 'only on the basis of such a spirituality' that it can be realized and put into practice. This is the teaching, and also the programme, that has its roots in 'the gospel of work'. (26).

3. Human work in the light of the Cross and the Resurrection of Christ - Human work is the imitation of the act of God and it gives dignity to man. And all work is inevitably linked with toil. In a sense, the final word of the Gospel on this matter as on others is found in the Paschal Mystery of Jesus Christ. 'The Paschal Mystery' contains 'the Cross' of Christ and his obedience unto death, which the Apostle contrasts with the disobedience which from the beginning has burdened man's history on earth.. (Cf. Ro 5,19) It also contains 'the elevation' of Christ, who by means of death on a Cross returns to his disciples in 'the Resurrection' with the power of the Holy Spirit.

Sweat and toil, which work necessarily involves in the present condition of the human race, present the Christian and everyone who is called to follow Christ with the possibility of sharing lovingly in the work that Christ came to do. This work of salvation came about through suffering and death on a Cross. By enduring the toil of work in union with Christ crucified for us, man in a way collaborates with the Son of God for the redemption of humanity. He shows himself a true disciple of Christ by carrying the cross in his turn every day in the activity that he is called upon to perform.

The Christian finds in human work a small part of the Cross of Christ and accepts it in the same spirit of redemption in which Christ accepted his Cross for us. In human work we hear the preaching of 'the new heavens and the new earth' by the Resurrection of the Christ. (2Pet 3,13; Rev 21,1). Man and the world participate precisely through the toil that goes with work. Through toil - and never without it. On the one hand this confirms the indispensability of the Cross in the spirituality of human work; on the other hand the Cross which this toil constitutes reveals a new good springing from work itself.

Is this 'new good' - the fruit of human work - already a small part of that 'new earth' where justice dwells? (2Pet 3,13) If it is true that the many forms of toil that go with man's work are a small part of the Cross of Christ, what is the relationship of this new good to 'the Resurrection of Christ'? The Vatican Council replies: "The expectation of a new earth must not weaken but rather stimulate our concern for cultivating this one. For here grows the body of a new human family, a body which even now is able to give some kind of foreshadowing of the new age. Earthly progress must be carefully distinguished from the growth of Christ's kingdom. Nevertheless, to the extent that the former can contribute to the better ordering of human society, it is of vital concern to the Kingdom of God."

Let the Christian know the place that his work has not only in 'earthly progress' but also in 'the development of the Kingdom of God', to which we are all called through the power of the Holy Spirit and through the word of the Gospel. (27).

14 September 1981

Pope John Paul


THROUGH WORK man must earn his daily bread and contribute to the continual advance of science and technology and, above all, to elevating unceasingly the cultural and moral level of the society within which he lives in community with those who belong to the same family. And work means any activity by man, whether manual or intellectual, whatever its nature or circumstances. Man is made to be in the visible universe an image and likeness of God himself (Gn 1,26), and he is placed in it in order to subdue the earth.. (Gn 1,28) From the beginning therefore he is called to work. Work is one of the characteristics that distinguish man from the rest of creatures, whose activity for sustaining their lives cannot be called work. Only man is capable of work, and only man works, at the same time by work occupying his existence on earth. Thus work bears the particular mark of man and of humanity, the mark of a person operating within a community of persons. And this mark decides its interior characteristics; in a sense it constitutes its very nature.


1. Why does the Church say that labor is holy and dignified?

2. On what basis is labor distinguished from capital?

3. What is 'the gospel of work'?

4. As for practicing social justice, the Church says workers should not struggle with each other but struggle for justice. When you try to evangelize your workplace, do you struggle like this?

5. Let's share the connections the results of my sweat and labor have with the toil and passion of Jesus and with his glorious resurrection.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


Family creates peace of human family

KEY POINT Let's protect our own families and be family to those who have none.

LEARNING Family creates peace of human family

The Holy Father's Message for the 27th World Day of Peace (Jan. 1 1994)

1. The world longs for peace and has a desperate need of peace. Yet wars, conflicts, increasing violence and situations of social unrest and endemic poverty continue to reap innocent victims and to cause divisions between individuals and peoples. At times peace appears a truly unattainable goal!

We must not lose heart. We know that in spite of everything, peace is possible, because it is part of the original divine plan

I would like, on the occasion of the International Year of the Family, to devote this World Day of Peace Message to a reflection on the close relationship between the family and peace.

The family: a community of life and love

2. The family, as the fundamental and essential educating community, is the privileged means for transmitting the religious and cultural values which help the person to acquire his or her own identity. Founded on love and open to the gift of life, the family contains in itself the very future of society; its most special task is to contribute effectively to a future of peace.

Through the efforts of parents to carry out properly their task as educators, committed to training their children to respect the dignity of every person and the values of peace. These values, more than being "taught", must be witnessed to in a family setting which lives out that self-giving love which is capable of accepting those who are different, making their needs and demands its own, and allowing them to share in its own benefits. The domestic virtues, based upon a profound respect for human life and dignity, and practised in understanding, patience, mutual encouragement and forgiveness, enable the community of the family to live out the first and fundamental experience of peace. This love is an intense and enduring moral force which seeks the good of others, even at the cost of self-sacrifice. Furthermore, true love always goes together with justice, so necessary for peace. It reaches out to those experiencing hardship: those who have no family, children who lack guidance and affection, the lonely and the outcast.

The family: victim of the lack of peace

3. In the contrast with its original vocation of peace, the family is sadly, and not infrequently, seen to be the scene of tension and oppression, or the defenceless victim of the many forms of violence marking society today.

Tensions are sometimes seen in relations within the family. These are often due to the difficulty of efforts to harmonize family life when work keeps spouses far from each other, or the lack or uncertainty of employment causes them to worry about survival and to be haunted by uncertainty about the future. There are also tensions deriving from patterns of behaviour inspired by hedonism and consumerism, which drive family members to seek personal gratification rather than a happy and fruitful life together. Frequent arguments between parents, the refusal to have children, and the abandonment and ill-treatment of minors are the sad symptoms that family peace is already seriously endangered; certainly it cannot be restored by the sad solution of a separation of the spouses, much less by recourse to divorce, a true "plague" of present day society. (Constitution of the Church today no. 47 reference)

4. Nor can one forget that war and violence not only constitute divisive forces which weaken and destroy family structures; they also exercise a pernicious influence on people's minds, suggesting and practically opposed to peace. In this regard one must deplore a very sad fact: these days unfortunately a growing number of boys and girls and even small children are playing a direct part in armed conflicts. They are forced to join armed militias and have to fight for causes they do not always understand. In other cases, they become involved in a real culture of violence in which life counts for very little and killing does not seem wrong.

At this point I cannot fail to mention another serious obstacle to the development of peace in our society: many, too many children are deprived of the warmth of a family. Sometimes the family is absent: in fact, the parents, taken up by other interests, leave their children to their own devices. In other cases the family simply does not exist: thus there are thousands of children who have no home but the street and who can count on no resources except themselves. Some of these street children die tragically. Others are led into the use and even the sale of drugs and into prostitution, and not infrequently they end up in criminal organizations. Such scandalous and widespread situations cannot be ignored! The very future of society is at stake. A community which rejects children, or marginalizes them, or reduces them to hopeless situations, can never know peace.

In order to count on a peaceful future, every child needs to experience the warmth of caring and constant affection, not betrayal and exploitation. And although the State can do much by providing means and structures of support, the contribution of the family to ensuring that climate of security and trust cannot be replaced, so important is it in helping young children to look to the future with serenity, and in preparing them to take a responsible part in building a society of true progress when they grow up. Children are the future already present among us; they need to experience what peace means, so that they will be able to create a future of peace.

The family: an agent for peace

5. An enduring peaceful order needs institutions which express and consolidate the values of peace. The institution which most immediately responds to the nature of the human being is the family. It alone ensures the continuity and the future of society. The family is therefore called to become an active agent for peace, through the values which it expresses and transmits within itself, and through the participation of each of its members in the life of society.

The family at the service of peace

6. I would like now to speak directly to families, in particular to Christian families.

"Families, become what you are!" I wrote in my Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio. Become an "intimate sharing of married life and love", called to give love and to transmit life!

Families, you have a mission of prime importance: that of contributing to the construction of peace, indispensable for respect for human life and its development. Knowing that peace is never secured once and for all, you must never grow weary of seeking it! Jesus, through his death on the Cross, has left to humanity his peace, assuring us of his enduring presence. Ask for this peace, pray for this peace, work for this peace!

To you parents falls the responsibility for forming and educating your children to be people of peace: for this purpose, you in the first place must be workers for peace.

Your children, facing the future with the eagerness of youth, full of hopes and dreams, value the gift of the family, prepare for the responsibility of building it or promoting it according to the particular callings that God will give you in due course. Develop a desire for good and thoughts of peace.

You grandparents, who with the other family members represent unique and precious links between the generations make a generous contribution of your experience and your witness in order to link the past to the future in a peaceful present.

Families, live out your mission in harmony and to the full!

Finally, how can we forget the many people who for various reasons feel that they have no family? To them I would like to say that there is a family for them too: the Church is home and family for all. She opens wide her doors and welcomes in all who are alone or abandoned: in them she sees the specially beloved children of God, whatever their age, and whatever their aspirations, difficulties of hopes.

May the family so live in peace that from it peace may spread throughout the whole human family!

This is the prayer which, through the intercession of Mary, Mother of Christ and of the Church, I offer to him "from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named", at the beginning of the International Year of this Family.

Pope John Paul

WORD (Apostolic Exhortation 'FAMILIARIS CONSORTIO' no. 86)

"Through God's mysterious design, it was in that family that the Son of God spent long years of a hidden life. It is therefore the prototype and example for all Christian families. It was unique in the world. It's life was passed in anonymity and silence in a little town in Palestine. It underwent trials of poverty, persecution and exile. It glorified God in an incomparably exalted and pure way. And it will not fail to help Christian families - indeed, all the families in the world - to be faithful to their day - to - day duties, to bear the cares and tribulations of life, to be open and generous to the needs of others, and to fulfill with you the plan of God in their regard."


1. Is your family a happy one?

2. What is the obstacle to the happiness of your family?

3. What is your role in your family? What shall you do to make a happy one?

4. Are there people who have no family around you? If there are, what can you do to be a family to them?

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!


"Loving the family means being able to appreciate its values and capabilities, fostering them always. Loving the family means identifying the dangers and the evils that menace it, in order to overcome them. Loving the family means endeavoring to create for it and environment favorable for its development." (Apostolic Exhortation 'FAMILIARIS CONSORTIO' no. 86)


Peace with God the Creator,

peace with all of creation

KEY POINT Let's preserve the orders of the world which God created

LEARNING Peace with God the Creator, peace with all of creation

The Holy Father's Message for the 23th World Day of Peace (Jan. 1 1990)


1. In our day, there is a growing awareness that world peace is threatened not only by the arms race, regional conflicts and continued injustices among peoples and nations, but also by a lack of due respect for nature, by the plundering of natural resources and by a progressive decline in the quality of life. The sense of precariousness and insecurity that such a situation engenders is a seedbed for collective selfishness, disregard for others and dishonesty.

2. Many ethical values, fundamental to the development of a peaceful society, are particularly relevant to the ecological question. The fact that many challenges facing the world today are interdependent confirms the need or carefully coordinated solutions based on a morally coherent world view.

. "And God saw that it was good"

3. After creating the heavens, the sea, the earth and all it contains, God created man and woman. At this point the refrain changes markedly: "Ana God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good" (Gen 1,31). God entrusted the whole of creation to the man and woman, and only then - as we read - could he rest "from all his work" (Gen 2,3).

Instead, they destroyed the existing harmony by deliberately going against the Creator's plan, that is, by choosing to sin.

4. Christians believe that the Death and Resurrection of Christ accomplished the work of reconciling humanity to the Father. Creation was thus made new. (cf. Rev 21,5) Once subjected to the bondage of sin and decay (Ro 8,21), it has now received new life while "we wait for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells" (2Pet 3,13).

5. These biblical considerations help us to understand better the relationship between human activity and the whole of creation. When man turns his back on the Creator's plan, he provokes a disorder which has inevitable repercussions on the rest of the created order. If man is not at peace with God, then earth itself cannot be at peace: "Therefore the land mourns and all who dwell in it languish, and also the beasts of the field and the birds of the air and even the fish of the sea are taken away" (Hos 4,3)

The profound sense that the earth is "suffering" is also shared by those who do not profess our faith in God.

Rather, we must go to the source of the problem and face in its entirety that profound moral crisis of which the destruction of the environment is only one troubling aspect.

. The ecological crisis: a moral problem

6. Certain elements of today's ecological crisis reveal its moral character. First among these is the indiscriminate application of advances in science and technology. This has led to the painful realization that we cannot interfere in one area of the ecosystem without paying due attention both to the consequences of such interference in other areas and to the well-being of future generations.

While in some cases the damage already done may well be irreversible, in many other cases it can still he halted.

7. The most profound and serious indication of the moral implications underlying the ecological problem is the lack of respect for life evident in many of the patterns of environmental pollution. Respect for life, and above all for the dignity of the human person, is the ultimate guiding norm for any sound economic, industrial or scientific progress. These principles and essential to the building of a peaceful society; no peaceful society can afford to neglect either respect for life or the fact that there is an integrity to creation.

. In search of a solution

8. The universal order must be respected. On the other hand, the earth is ultimately a common heritage, the fruits of which are for the benefit of all.

9. The concepts of an ordered universe and a common heritage both point to the necessity of a more internationally coordinated approach to the management of the earth's goods. The need for joint action on the international level does not lessen the responsibility of each individual State. The right to a safe environment is ever more insistently presented today as a right that must be included in an updated Charter of Human Rights.

. The urgent need for a new solidarity

10. The ecological crisis reveals the urgent need for a new solidarity, especially in relations between the developing nations and those that are highly industrialized. These need presents new opportunities for strengthening cooperative and peaceful relations among States.

11. It must also be said that the proper ecological balance will not be found without directly addressing the structural forms of poverty that exist throughout the world. Rural poverty and unjust land distribution in many countries, for example, have led to subsistence farming and to the exhaustion of the soil.

12. But there is another dangerous menace which threatens us, namely war. Unfortunately, modern science already has the capacity to change the environment for hostile purposes.

13. Modern society will find no solution to the ecological problem unless it takes a serious look at its life style. Simplicity, moderation and discipline, as well as a spirit of sacrifice, must become a part of everyday life, lest all suffer the negative consequences of the careless habits of a few.

An education in ecological responsibility is urgent: responsibility for oneself, for others, and for the earth. The first educator, is the family, where the child learns to respect his neighbour and to love nature.

14. Finally, the aesthetic value of creation cannot be overlooked. Good urban planning is an important part of environmental protection, and respect for he natural contours of the land is an indispensable prerequisite for ecologically sound development. The relationship between a good aesthetic education and the maintenance of a healthy environment cannot be overlooked.

. The ecological crisis: a common responsibility

15. Today the ecological crisis has assumed such proportions as to be the responsibility of everyone. When the ecological crisis is set within the broader context of the search for peace within society, we can understand better the importance of giving attention to what the earth and its atmosphere are telling us: namely, that there is an order in the universe which must be respected., and that the human person, endowed with the capability of choosing freely, has a grave responsibility to preserve this order for the wee-being of future generations. I wish to repeat that the ecological crisis is a moral issue.

16. The commitment of believers to a healthy environment for everyone stems directly from their belief in God the Creator, from their recognition of the effects of original and personal sin, and from the certainty of having been redeemed by Christ. Respect for life and for the dignity of the human person extends also to the rest of creation, which is called to join man in praising God (cf. Ps 148,96)

In 1979, I proclaimed saint Francis of Assisi as the heavenly Patron of those who promote ecology (cf. Apostolic Letter Inter Sanctos, AAS 71 [1979], 1509 f.). He offers Christians an example of genuine and deep respect for he integrity of creation. As a friend of the poor who was loved by God's creatures, Saint Francis invited all of creation - animals, plants, natural forces, even Brother Sun and Sister Moon - to give honour and praise to the Lord. The Poor Man of Assisi gives us striking witness that when we are at peace with God we are better able to devote ourselves to building up that peace with all creation which is inseparable from peace among all peoples.

It is my hope that the inspiration of Saint Francis will help us to keep ever alive a sense of "fraternity" with all those good and beautiful things which Almighty God has created. And may he remind us of our serious obligation to respect and watch over them with care, in light of that greater and higher fraternity that exists within the human family.

Pope John Paul

WORD (Rome 8,19-20.23-25)

8 19For the anxious longing of the creation waits eagerly for the revealing of the sons of God. 20For the creation was subjected to futility, not of its own will, but because of Him who subjected it, in hope 23And not only this, but also we ourselves, having the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting eagerly for (our) adoption as sons, the redemption of our body. 24For in hope we have been saved, but hope that is seen is not hope; for why does one also hope for what he sees? 25But if we hope for what we do not see, with perseverance we wait eagerly for it.

SHARING Let's share your feeling after reading the Holy Father's Message.

SEE Do you preserve the order of creation? Or do you destroy it?

JUDGE Why did God make you to rule over the world? And, how did God make you to rule over the world?

ACT Let's promise and act to preserve the order of creation, as best we can.

PRAYER Let's pray to God one by one!






Addendum 1 Common prayers


In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.


Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be the name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.


Hail, Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you, Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.


Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. As it was in the beginning, is now, and will be for ever. Amen.


I believe in God the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth, I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, Our Lord. (All bow during these two lines:) He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended to the dead. On the third day he rose again. He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.


I confess to almighty God, and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I Have sinned through my own fault (strike your breast) in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done, and in what I have failed to do; and I ask blessed Mary, ever virgin, all the angels and saints, and you, my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord our God.

May almighty God have mercy on us, forgive us our sins, and bring us to everlasting life. Amen.


O my God, I firmly believe all the truths that the holy catholic Church believes and teaches. I believe these truths, O Lord, because you have revealed them to her and in this faith I am resolved to live and die. Amen.


O my God, relying on your promises, I hope that, through the infinite merits of Jesus Christ, you will grant me pardon of my sins, and the graces necessary to serve you in this life and to obtain eternal happiness in the next. Amen.


O my God, I love you with my whole heart and above all things, because you are infinitely good and perfect; and I love my neighbour as myself for love of you. Grant that I may love you more and more in this life, and in the next for all eternity. Amen.


O my God, I am sorry that I have sinned against you, because you are so good, and by the help of your grace, I will not sin agin. Amen.


O my God, I am sorry and beg pardon for all my sins, and detest them above all things, because they deserve your dreadful punishments, because they have crucified my loving Saviour Jesus Christ, and most of all, because they offend your infinite goodness; and I firmly resolve, by the help of your grace, never to offend your infinite goodness; and I firmly resolve, by the help of your grace, never to offend you again, and carefully to avoid the occasions of sin. Amen.


Come, O Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful and kindle in them the fire of your love.

Send forth your Spirit, and they shall be created.

And you will renew the face of the earth.

Let us pray

O God, (you) who have taught the hearts of the faithful by the light of the Holy Spirit, grant us by that Holy Spirit himself, to know what is right and ever rejoice in his consolation. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.


Angel of God, my guardian dear; to whom God's love commits me here, ever this day be at my side, to light and guard, to rule and guide. Amen.


V) The angel of the Lord declared unto Mary.

R) And she conceived of the Holy Spirit.

Hail Mary

V) Behold the handmaid of the Lord.

R) Be it done unto me according to your word.

Hail Mary

V) The WORD was made flesh.

R) And dwelt among us.

Hail Mary

V) Pray for us, O holy Mother of God.

R) That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

let us pray

Pour forth, we beseech you, O lord, your grace into our hearts, that we to whom the incarnation of Christ your Son, was made known by the message of an angel, may, by his passion and cross, be brought to the glory of his resurrection. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.


Rejoice, O Queen of heaven, Alleluia.

For he whom you did merit to bear, Alleluia.

Has risen as he said, Alleluia.

Pray for us to God, Alleluia.

V) Rejoice and be glad, O Virgin Mary, Alleluia.

R) For the Lord has risen indeed, Alleluia.

Let us pray

O God who has given joy to the whole world through the resurrection of your Son our Lord Jesus Christ; grant that through the prayers of his Virgin Mother Mary we may obtain the joys of everlasting life. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen


We fly to your patronage,

O holy Mother of God,

despise not our petitions in our necessities,

but deliver us from all dangers,

O ever glorious and blessed Virgin.


O Jesus, through the most pure heart of Mary, I offer you the prayers, works, joys and sufferings of this day for all the intentions of your divine heart. Amen.


I adore you, my God, and I love you with all my heart. I thank you for having created me, made me a Christian, and kept me this night. I offer you my actions of this day; grant that they all may be according to your holy will and for your greater glory. Keep me from sin and all evil. May your grace be always with me and with all my dear ones. Amen.


I adore you, my God, and I love you with all my heart. I thank you for having created me, made me a Christian and kept me this day. Pardon me the evil I have done, and if I have done some good, accept it. Take care of me while I sleep and deliver me from all danger. May your grace be always with me and with all my loved ones. Amen.


Bless us, O lord, and these your gifts, which we are about to receive from your bounty. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.


We give you thanks, O almighty God, for all your benefits; who live and reign, world without end. Amen.

May the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen.



The rosary is a series of prayers in honour of our Lord and the blessed Virgin Mary. The whole rosary is composed of fifteen decades. A decade consists of: 'The Lord's Prayer', ten 'Hail Mary's and 'the Glory be to the Father'.

The rosary consists of five decades of beads, as it is a common practice to recite five decades at a time, while meditating on either the five 'joyful', 'sorrowful' or 'glorious' mysteries in the life of our Lord and the blessed Virgin Mary.

It is customary to commence the rosary by saying 'The Apostles' Creed', 'The Lord's Prayer', three 'Hail Mary's and 'the glory be to the Father'.

The 'Hail, Holy Queen' is usually said after the five decades are completed.

The Rosary

The Sign of the Cross

The Apostles' Creed.

The Lord's Prayer on the large beads.

The Hail Mary on the small beads.

The Glory be to the Father, at the end of each decade.

At the end of the five decades the 'Hail, Holy Queen' is usually said.


(Monday and Thursday)


The angel went in and said to her, 'Rejoice, so highly favoured! The Lord is with you'. (Luke 1,28)


And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. She gave a loud cry and said: 'Of all women you are the most blessed, and blessed is the fruit of your womb.' (Luke 1,41-42)


And she gave birth to a son, her first-born. She wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger because there was no room for them at the inn. (Lk 2,7)_


And when the day came for them to be purified as laid down by the Law of Moses, they took him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord. (Lk 2,22-23)


Three days later, they found him in the Temple, sitting among the doctors listening to them, and asking them questions (Lk 2,46)


(Tuesday and Friday)


In his anguish he prayed even more earnestly, and his sweat fell to the ground like great drops of blood. When he rose from prayer he went to the disciples and found them sleeping for sheer grief. (Lk 22,44-45)


Pilate then had Jesus taken away and scourged. (Jn 19,1)


Then they stripped him and made him wear a scarlet cloak, and having twisted some thorns into a crown they put this on his head and placed a reed in his right hand. (Mt 27,28.-29)


And carrying his own cross he went out of the city to the place of the skull or, as it was called in Hebrew, Golgotha. (Jn 19,17)


And when Jesus had cried out in a loud voice, he said, 'Father, into your hands I commit my spirit'. With these words he breathed his last. (Lk 23,46)


(Wednesday and Saturday and Sunday)


You are looking for Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified: he has risen, he is not here. SEE here is the place where they laid him. (Mark 16,6)


And so the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven: there at the right hand of God he took his place. (Mark 16,19)


They were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak foreign languages as the Spirit gave them the gift of speech. (Acts 2,2)


Now a great sign appeared in heaven; a woman, adorned with the sun, standing on the moon, and with the twelve stars on her head for a crown. (Revelation 12,1)


On her head a crown of twelve stars. (Revelation 12,1)


Hail, holy Queen, mother of mercy. Hail, our life, our sweetness, and our hope. To you do we cry, poor banished children of Eve. To you do we send up our sighs mourning and weeping in this vale of tears. Turn then, most gracious advocate, your eyes of mercy towards us, and after this our exile, show unto us the blessed fruit of your womb, Jesus. O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary.

V) Pray for us, O holy Mother of God.

R) That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

Let us pray

O God, whose only-begotten Son, by his life, death and resurrection, has purchased for us the rewards of eternal life; grant we beseech you, that meditating upon these mysteries in the most holy Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, we may both imitate what they contain, and obtain what they promise. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

















Lord have mercy Lord have mercy

Christ have mercy Christ have mercy

Lord have mercy Lord have mercy


Glory to God in the highest and peace to his people on earth. Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God and Father, we worship you, we give you thanks, we praise you for your glory Lord Jesus Christ, only Son of the Father, Lord God, Lamb of God. you take away the sin of the world: have mercy on us; you are seated at the right hand of the Father: receive our prayer. For you alone are the Holy One, you alone are the Lord. you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the Father. Amen.


Holy, holy, holy, Lord. God of power and might. Heaven and earth are full of your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.


Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.

Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.

Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world, grant us peace.


Addendum 2 Body of Christ - Amen

Mass is the perfect prayer for meeting with Jesus.

Mass is the foundation stone for working with Jesus by preaching the Good News to help build the Kingdom of God.

We meet Jesus in Mass to unite with Jesus in our hearts and to be Jesus's disciples and to be apostles of Jesus for preaching joyfully and strongly Jesus and His gospel.

Mass is a sacrifice of thanksgiving to God and a feast for having God.

Mass teaches me how to live by hearing the WORDs of Jesus (Liturgy of the WORD) and unites me with Jesus.(Liturgy of the Eucharist)

Then let's practice Mass before our First Holy Communion.




In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.


The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.

And also with you.


My brothers and sisters, to prepare ourselves to celebrate the sacred mysteries, let us call to mind our sins.

I confess to almighty God, and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have sinned through my own fault (strike your breast) in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done, and in what I have failed to do; and I ask blessed Mary, ever virgin, all the angels and saints, and you, my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord our God.

May almighty God have mercy on us, forgive us our sins, and bring us to everlasting life



Lord have mercy Lord have mercy

Christ have mercy Christ have mercy

Lord have mercy Lord have mercy


Glory to God in the highest,

and peace to his people on earth. Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God and Father, we worship you, we give you thanks, we praise you for your glory Lord Jesus Christ, only Son of the Father, Lord God, Lamb of God. you take away the sin of the world: have mercy on us; you are seated at the right hand of the Father: receive our prayer. For you alone are the Holy One, you alone are the Lord. you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the Father. Amen.


Let us pray. Amen



This is the word of the Lord.

Thanks be to God



This is the word of the Lord.

Thanks be to God



8 The Lord be with you.

And also with you.

A leading from the holy gospel according to N.

Glory to you, Lord.

This is the gospel of the Lord.

Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ



I believe in God,

the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth, I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, Our Lord. (All bow during these two lines:) He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended to the dead. On the third day he rose again. He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.




Blessed are you, Lord, God of all creation. Through your goodness we have this bread to offer, which earth has given and human hands have made. It will become for us the bread of life.

Blessed be God for ever.

Blessed are you, Lord, God of all creation. Through your goodness we have this wine to offer, fruit of the vine and work of human hands. It will become our spiritual drink.

Blessed be God for ever.

Pray brethren, that our sacrifice may be acceptable go God, the almighty Father.

May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands for the praise and glory of his mame, for our good, and the good of all his Church.




The Lord be with you

And also with you.

Lift up your hearts.

We lift them up the Lord.

Let us give thanks to the Lord our God

It's right to give him thanks and praise.

Father, it is our duty and our salvation, always and everywhere to give you thanks through your beloved Son, Jesus Christ, He is the WORD through whom you made the universe, the Savior you sent to redeem us. By the power of the Holy Spirit be took flesh and was born of the Virgin Mary. For our sake he opened his arms on the cross; he put an end to death and revealed the resurrection. In this he fulfilled your will and won for you a holy people. And so we join the angels and the saints in proclaiming your glory as we sing (say):

Holy, holy, holy, Lord. God of power and might. Heaven and earth are full of your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

Lord, you are holy indeed, the fountain of all holiness, Let your Spirit come upon these gifts to make them holy, so that they may become for us the body and blood of our Lord, Jesus Christ.

Before he was given up to death, a death he freely accepted, he took bread and gave you thanks,. He broke the bread, gave it to his disciples, and said:



When supper was ended, he took the cup. Agin he gave you thanks and praise, gave the cup to his disciples, and said:







Let us proclaim the mystery of faith:

Christ has died, christ has risen, christ will come again.

In memory of his death and resurrection, we offer you, Father, this life-given bread, this saving cup. We thank you for counting us worthy to stand in your presence and serve you.

May all of us who share in the body and blood of Christ be brought together in unity by the Holy Spirit.

Lord, remember your Church throughout the world; make us grow in love, together with N. our Pope, N. our bishop, and all the clergy.

Remember our brothers and sisters who have gone to their rest in the hope of rising again; bring them and all the departed into the light of your presence. Have mercy on us all; make us worthy to share eternal life, with Mary, the virgin mother of God, with the apostles, and with all the saints who have done your will throughout the ages. May we praise you in union with them, and give you glory through your Son, Jesus Christ,

Through him, with him, in him, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, all glory and honor is yours, almighty Father, for ever and ever.




Let us pray with confidence to the Father in the words our Savior gave us:

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be the name; The kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.

Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.

Deliver us, Lord, from every evil, and grant us peace in our day in your mercy keep us free from sin and protect us from all anxiety as we wait in joyful hope for the coming of our Savior, Jesus Christ.

For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours, now and for ever.


Lord Jesus Christ, you said to your apostles: I leave you peace, my peace I give you. Look not on our sins, but on the faith of your Church, and grant us the peace and unity of your kingdom where you live for ever and ever.


The peace of the Lord be with you always.

And also with you.

Let us offer each other the sign of peace.


Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world, grant us peace.


This the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world. Happy are those who are called to his supper.

Lord, I am not worthy to receive you, but only say the word and I shall be healed.

The body of Christ.



Let us pray. Amen.



The Lord be with you.

And also with you.


May almighty God bless you, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.



Go in the peace of Christ.

Thanks be to God.


1. Preparing for Communion

1) Preparing heart : If you have sins or failed to love others, reconcile with Jesus by celebrating Confession. And from the deepest part of your heart, pray, "Please come to me Jesus!" This is a prayer asking Jesus who is my Lord and loves me "to come to me and unite with me and give me joy and happiness and give me the power for carrying out His word."

2) Preparing Body : Wash body clearly and wear clean clothes. Eat nothing from one hour before Communion. Of course, you can drink water or take medicine.

2. Practice for Communion

Please come forward in two lines with your hands joined in prayer.

While the person in front receives Holy Communion bow to Jesus then come forward and receive the Holy Body holding your left hand above your right hand.

After receiving the Holy Body, go two steps to the side, eat (unite) the Holy Body.


Addendum 3 I forgive you

KEY POINT Confession is the place of grace which reconciles us with God and neighbors and ourselves. Through Confession which is the Sacrament whereby we again become reconciled with God.


1. Wounds and sins make a man/woman suffer.

2. Without healing these wounds and being reconciled with each other Jesus cannot remain with me.

3. If Jesus be not in me I cannot heal my wounds and I live without any joy or love.

4. Let's together open our minds and be reconciled.

5. Reading the diary of Hansoli, think of whom I must be reconciled with. If this friend comes to mind, I should say, "I forgive you, please forgive me!" Then my heart will be filled with the love and peace of Jesus.

- "If you forgive others their wrongs, your Father in Heaven will also forgive yours. If you do not forgive others, then your Father will not forgive you either." (Mt 6,14-15)

Matter for examination of conscience - The Ten Commandments (Lesson 4 reference)

Rather than coming into the Confession room with fear and anxiety as a sinner, it will be better to have hope and faith like the younger son who returned to the father who had endless love for him.

The Confession - The Penance

1) Review : Think about the wrong things we have done.

2) Penitence : Repent these wrongs and be sorry for them.

3) Determination : Decide and pray for help not to do wrong again; then be reconciled with your friend.

4) Confession : Confess your sins to Jesus through the priest.

5) Penance : Renew yourself completely by offering a little penance, because Jesus forgives my sins by His death on the cross.


-The rite for Reconciliation of Individual Penitents


In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen



(tell how long since you last Confession and confess your sins and listen to the priest's advice)


My God, I am sorry for my sins with all my heart. In choosing to do wrong and failing to do good, I have sinned against you whom I should love above all things. I firmly intend, with your help, to do penance, to sin no more, and to avoid whatever leads me to sin. Our Savior Jesus Christ suffered and died for us. In his name, my God, have mercy


God, the Father of mercies, through the death and resurrection of his Son has reconciled the world to himself and sent the Holy Spirit among us for the forgiveness of sins; through the ministry of the Church may God give you pardon and peace, and I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.


Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good.

His mercy endures for ever.

The diary of Hansoli

July 15. 1992 Wednesday Clear

Because of a dispute last Sunday with Paul I am still not in good humor. So I do not want to see him or meet him. And whenever I think of him my mind is not easy. Whenever I pray, he comes into my mind and it bothers my conscience. Because I was ashamed to meet Jesus. I did not go to Church or pray this Sunday. I am in bad humor and there is no joy for me in life.

The day before yesterday, I made a resolution 'to reconcile' with him as soon as possible but when I met him yesterday we disagreed again. I visited firstly to be reconciled with him. But because I was resentful and upset. I gave up and said to him, "I don't want to play with you anymore." This morning, I thought if I do not see Paul I would be glad and have peace of mind. But it was the same.-No!-It was worse!

So, I went to church as soon as finishing my work; and asked a priest: "What shall I do?" The priest said to me, "A reconciliation is a grace of Jesus. Therefore firstly you should go into a chapel and sit in front of Jesus and imagine your friend and say in your mind, 'I forgive you. please forgive me also.' And pray to Jesus, 'Please give me the grace of reconciliation!'"

As I went out, after praying in the Church and returning the dormitory, I met Paul accidently; and strangely I was reconciled with him easily. I went to confession. So, the priest forgave me in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. I felt very good, as if I could fly like a bird in the sky. I could pray better than before. And I felt at peace and happy.

"Today, I realize that Confession is the Sacrament of Reconciliation. And Jesus is merciful. Whenever I call Jesus, He always answers and visits me and forgives me; He is full of love! As Jesus forgave my sin, I felt free again!"

"Jesus, I thank you! I am born again by your grace. Because of reconciling with Paul, I am happy and I thank you, Jesus forgive me. I will not trespass against You and friends again, I will become the Hansoli who is full of your love. Amen. Jesus, I will go to bed now."

"Good night. see you tomorrow morning."


Addendum 4 Lord, here I am!

- Retreat for the Baptism of worker catechumen class

First day: Evening (Saturday)

17:00 Departure

18:00 Dinner

20:00 Preparation of Retreat - Arrangement of reference - material

22:00 Retire

Second day (Sunday)

07:00 Rising

07:30 Morning Prayer

08:00 Breakfast

09:30 Orientation for meditation and meditative prayer

12:30 Lunch

14:00 Sharing

16:30 Presentation

17:30 Mass

* 20:00 Preparation of Retreat Material.


1. Let's review the situation and conditions of your life when you enrolled as a catechumen.

(When? What happened to you that you wanted to join the catechumen class?)

2. What did you feel as you studied the doctrine?

1) What has changed in your life?

2) When were you happy?

3) When did you find things difficult?


1. Now that you have learned the doctrine, is god your food of life?

2. Have you felt the call and summons of God through the doctrine you studied?

3. What do you promise to do as a result of your doctrine study?

09:30 Meditative prayer

* Pray for the coming of the Holy Spirit before reading these sentences

Stay for a while on each phrase, do not read fast;

Come Jesus upon us!

Review our lives well

Without any feeling of guilt, see only Jesus with the pure heart of a child!

Say to Jesus whenever you read each paragraph, "Jesus, I love you!"

Not only think but also pray after reading.

Meet and talk with Jesus.

Pray to Jesus who has loved me deeply.

May the Holy Mother lead you.

1. Jesus loves me.

"I want to know you Jesus

and to feel Your love."

The retreat is a rest. - A one day rest. This is a spiritual rest. Review how I have lived and what I have been doing and make the necessary changes. This is a spiritual rest time. Retreat is coming into a new world, a strange world. It is not I but God is changing me. Feeling and meeting God and talking with Him. Baptism! Sharing! If you forget all and rest in God, he will give peace and the power to solve your problems.

"The Lord loves me!" Jesus Christ whom I did not know but who lived 2,000 years ago died for me and rose again, He loves me without any condition as much as I allow Him. The problem is whether I accept His love or not.

2. Cooperating with Jesus - forgiveness

We sometimes cannot accept the Lord because of some anxiety (money, personal characteristic etc). But the essence is 'the heart which bears the grudge' and 'the heart which does not forgive' If you have an anxiety it was given by the Lord. Don't be afraid. Otherwise, we ourselves are the cause.

The first step of love is 'forgiveness'. While saying, "Please forgive me!" if you are bearing a grudge then the door of your mind is closed. This is closing the opening. "I don't want to meet him/her" If you cannot forgive at once If you postpone the forgiveness, this is useless because you should forgive there and then. And forgiveness is 'giving and taking'. If you think of no one whom you should forgive. You knew before but time has passed and you have forgotten it. But the grudge still remains. And you have offended others and were offended yourself without being aware of it.

A woman said to me, "Father, I cannot pray!" I replied, "Do you want to pray?" "I should like to pray! "Do you have any obstacle?" "" "Well, whom do you bear a grudge against?" She cried for a long time. "How do you know? I hate my mother." "Woman! Let's pray together and in your mind forgive your mother." And then she felt free and could pray.

The purpose of forgiveness is wanting to receive the love of Jesus more and more. When we sometimes forgive we attach conditions, "Is he/she sorry first, Will he/she say never again" etc. But Jesus doesn't attach any condition to his forgiving.

Pray the forgiving prayer, "Brother, I will forgive you whatever you will do at any time." in front of him whom you can forgive only with difficulty. Let's pray the forgiving prayer. Imagining the father and praying, "Father, I forgive you. please forgive me." And mother, family and one by one who are not present now. Forgive them. Lastly, coming to Jesus who is hanging on the Cross and praying, "I forgive those whom I don't know and ask forgiveness of them" Let's pray for the love of Jesus without distress and feelings of guilt.

3. Contrition

We must open the door of our heart if we want to come nearer to Jesus. The best way of opening the heart is 'forgiveness'. But also, it is 'contrition'. Are there sins which are difficult to confess? What are these? But I can tell you, the problem is not the sins but the remembrance of, shame, and confusion The problem is the bad feelings which you continuously have because of past sins and their evil results.

Don't feel guilty. Those who are poisoned by guilt sin habitually. Alcohol, Sex, Gambling, Leaving home What would you do if one in your family is like this? This is only 'love'. Because they couldn't control themselves. If one sins habitually, he/she has feelings of guilt and hates himself/herself. Thus he/she can't be liberated from this oppression. He/She can be liberated when he/she will admit the reality of his/her situation. If you blame those who are in sin they feel guilt for their crimes and inferior in themselves. Say simply, "Don't be afraid. God loves you."? He/She can come to Jesus when he/she is contrite (sorry for sins).

A genuinely contrite heart is not just what we think, not being apologetic or worried but rather the heart of the returning prodigal. It is the heart of his loving father. It is a heart not expecting rebuke but expecting love and the wish to do anything to experience that love.

When I was young, I did something unknown to my parents. Later my father found out. He questioned me, "Did you do this?" At the time I decided in my heart to deny what had happened. Then my mother said, "He didn't do it. He is not bad boy. I believe in him." At this moment I was torn by sorrow and confessed, "I did it!" Looking back on it now, I wonder how I could tell such a bareface lie? How could I do such a thing my mother? Because I felt the love of my mother, knew her affection for me I was sorry in the face of her love.

To be contrite I must first acknowledge, Jesus' love for me! Otherwise my contrition comes from feeling guilty and is not true sorrow. We can't control the love of Jesus, but I unconsciously want to control His love. Habitual sin is committed to some extent in unconsciousness, but as soon as it is, you should remember, "God loves me." Feeling bad after committing sin presents us from accepting the love of Jesus.

4. Prayer

What is the purpose of meeting Jesus? We meet Him in order to know Him, to be like Him and become as Jesus, was Himself. We should show forth Jesus in our lives. Prayer is a 'gift' on the chapter 8 of the letter to Romans. We cannot pray by our own power. It can be done by the power of the Holy Spirit only. Prayer is contact with Jesus. Extending two hands is a prayer, too. When you can't pray, extend your two hands. Whether this is offering or asking to receive the love of Jesus. If you are in contact with Jesus, you are praying. We pray by praying. Contact Him in any way you can.

Pray with love!

Stay with Jesus!

There are obstacles preventing prayer. eg.s, 1) a grudge 2) habitual sins (when you confess the same sins whenever you confess) 3) disinterest ("It's so strange!", "It is foolish to sit and stay alone!", "What is prayer?", "If you pray what will happen?")

When people meet God in prayer He appears under several aspects. 1) God as Santa Clause. (Please give me, 'this', 'that') 2) God as the norm of 'good.' ("Live a good life.") 3) God as watcher and judge ("You will be punished when you sin.") 4) God as too distant. ("I felt nothing." or "I don't know what is the will of God, or whether I should this or that?" - even when one cannot concentrate or is distracted or not paying attention there are times when one still thinks of God) 5) Good response ("You are wonderful!" "I love you!" "You are good!" - When you meet Him He won't be angry or blame you for wrongs; rather he will forgive you and give you strength.)

Don't worry and give up because you pray with difficulty and don't feel prayer is easy. Even though it is hard to pray, stay continuously in that place, waiting for Jesus. Imagine the features of Jesus whom you saw in some holy picture. Recall these in your imagination and memory, "Jesus, I love you! Jesus, come to me!"

Let's pray. Let's read the prayer below quietly from the bottom of our hearts saying you want Jesus to come to you and feel Him.

Jesus, I love you!

Jesus, come to me.

Jesus, come to me to be with me.

Jesus, come to me to share my difficulties and worries.

Jesus, come to me and give me Your power.

Jesus, I love you!

Jesus, come to me.

when I am tired of working,

when I am angry because of my fellow workers,

when these need me,

when I bear the cross alone in factory/office.

when I am insulted from above,

Jesus, console me with your love.

Jesus, save me when I am insulted as You were insulted in public.

Jesus, I love you!

Jesus, come to me!

when I have a meeting with others,

when I have to because others don't come,

when the members are reduced and weak,

Jesus, come to me, be with me, console me and give Your power.

Unless you send new members, I can not find a friend.

Jesus, I love you!

Jesus, come to me.

when I go to a lonely companion,

when I start a meeting with new members,

Jesus, come to me, be with me and give to me the wisdom and love and capability to show You to others.

Holy Mary, I love you also!

Holy Mary, let me know Jesus.

Holy Mother, please lead me to Jesus.

when the Lord, companions and members need me

Holy Mother, lead me to listen to the word and the call of the Lord in others' demands.

Holy Mother, lead me to walk the way of the obedience, like You who obeyed God and conceived the infant Jesus.

Holy Mother, pray for me.

Saint Theresa, I love you also.

Saint Theresa, give me your spirit whereby you loved only Jesus, with purity and fervor.

Saint Theresa who loved Jesus and are the patron of missionaries,

when I preach the Gospel in the factory/office,

lead me to have the power, capability and wisdom which comes from Jesus.

5. Contemplative prayer

* Let's go to Jesus. in front of the Blessed Sacrament.

After reading from the 4th verse to the 10th verse of chapter 13 of John's Gospel. Let's close our eyes and imagine the scene..

13 4Jesus rose from supper, and laid aside His garments; and taking a towel, He girded Himself about. 5Then He poured water into the basin, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded. 6And so He came to Simon Peter. He said to Him, "Lord, do You wash my feet?" 7Jesus answered and said to him, "What I do you do not realize now, but you shall understand hereafter." 8Peter said to Him, "Never shall You wash my feet!" Jesus answered him, "If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me." 12And so when He had washed their feet, and taken His garments, and reclined (at the table) again, He said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you? 15For I gave you an example that you also should do as I did to you." (Jn 13,4-8. 12. 15)

Contemplative prayer is not like seeing a movie. Rather you are in the scene. Put yourself in there and see. Listen well to the words of Jesus

What do you feel when Jesus rises up suddenly, pours water into a basin and washes your feet? What do you say to Jesus and what does Jesus say to you?

I am sitting on the chair with the disciples.

Jesus is coming to me after washing the feet of the other disciples one by one .

Peter who is beside me says, "You shall never wash my feet"

Jesus answered him, "If I do not wash you, you can have no part of (nothing to do with) me."

Then Peter said, "Lord, wash not only my feet but also my hands and my head!"

Jesus replied, "Whoever has taken a bath does not need to wash (except his feet), for he is clean all over." And Jesus washes Peter's feet.

Now it is my turn.

Jesus goes down on his knees at my feet and questions me,

"Can I wash your feet?"

Answer! Tell Him!

Speak to Him just as you would if you met Him.

Jesus, who wants to meet you is just at your feet now.

Say whatever you want!

Maybe you cannot look straight at Jesus because you think of your sins and faults.

But don't worry, don't be ashamed or afraid but tell Him all you want to say.

"Do You remember my actions, deeds, sins on such and such an occasion?"

I don't record my sins but I know them all.

"Jesus, did you know my sins at that time? Remember them? What do you think of them now?"

Then Jesus will say to me.

"I don't know. And those were only a small part of your life. I don't remember them now. Don't be afraid of me. I even love you in spite of these sins."

At this time, stay deeply in the love of the Lord, for a long time.

Listen well to the words Jesus says to you.

And ask like Peter,

"Lord, wash my feet!"

And Jesus looks up at me and then washes my feet.

Stay here for a long time.

6. Belief

Do you believe in Jesus? Really? Someone may respond easily to this question, "Yes!" Then Do you believe in Jesus really? How much? What %? 5-70%

Jesus trusts us completely. Do you believe in Jesus everywhere and at all times? Jesus said to me, "I trust you." This is right. Then we said "I believe in Jesus." Is this really true?

What is faith? A man climbed the mountain. Climbing the mountain, he stumbled and fell over a precipice. Falling down, he caught the branch of a tree and felt saved a little. He thought of this or that but no good idea came to him and no one passed by. Then he thought of God and shouted to Heaven, "God, help me!" God responded, "Do you believe in me?" "Yes, I do." "Do you believe that I can save you?" "Yes, I do." "Well then, let go of that branch! How can I save you if you are holding it?" The man might have shouted, "No, never. Is there any God other than you?"

I entrust my life to His care. To this degree I trust Him, love Him, believe in Him and commit myself to Him. Do you really believe in Jesus when you are in difficulties? "Jesus! He asks too much. Don't you want to believe in another God, another Jesus who does not give difficult commandments? Paul said, "To keep me from exalting myself, there was given me a thorn in the flesh" (2Cor 12,7)

When you reveal yourself wholly in a group; when you go as a missionary to an unknown parish; when you teach those who know nothing; when you give up your social and economic lives, your family or friends to meet and help the Gospel to the workers who are weak and abandoned; when you are chosen the leader to represent your group; when you evangelize the factory/office or working place, do you believe in Jesus in all these situations?

7. Faith which is not wounded but maturing

There are three steps to maturity.

The first is 'desire.' "I want to walk the road of Jesus!"

Secondly 'self-rationalization.' Having walked the road of Jesus successfully for a period of time, then the temptation to slacken off comes thus: "Let's go slowly from here on." "Let's change the rules" "May I share small?" "Can't I absent myself from the meetings?" "Is it not all right only to participate in the meeting, not to share etc?"

Thirdly the step of 'the internalization'. I myself want, choose to go on continuously on this road with greater effort and joy.

When someone whom I knew and respected, and whom I followed happens to cause scandal and abandons the Church, this causes a crisis for me. At such a time rather than asking for perfection I should ask Jesus to increase His love in me through giving me the freedom to accept such a situation. The feeling is very important. I should not give the right which can control and rule over my feeling and emotions to another. If anyone does something against me, I must not feel bad or disturbed. Whatever anyone does, it is I who will be in trouble, angry, sad or distressed. Give and commit everything to Jesus. It is a problem of self-control.

If you worry too much, you will be distressed more and more. This is not done alone. Jesus helps me, too. What is a bird? An animal which has wings, a flying animal is called a bird. Is a cock a bird or not? Does it fly or not? The cock flies only when he is in danger. He always searches for food in the soil. It seems wings are not necessary for him. Well. Comparing the cock and 'Livingston Seagull' it seems that the cock always looks at his weakness. Seagull looked upon the sky and had the freedom to fly higher and higher. So try to live in the warm love of Jesus by being brave and loving.

*14:00 Sharing

Share the feelings and any changes that have occurred during the first day of the retreat.

1. Is the Lord the well-nourished food of your life according to the worker-catechism?

2. Have you felt the call and appeal of God through the worker-catechism?

3. What should you promise to do as a result of your study of the worker-catechism?

4. Did you feel God during the retreat?

5. Did you achieve strength by meeting Jesus?

ACT As you intend to be baptized at this time, as a child and disciple of the Lord and as one who will proclaim the death and resurrection of the Lord, having received strength from the Lord, what do you immediately wish to do?

1. How do you want to be changed?

2. What will you do after being changed?


Let's review.

- "God takes care of me!"

KEY POINT Being in the Lord

WORD Majesty of the Lord and the dignity of human (Ps 8)

1O Lord, our Lord,

How majestic is Thy name in all the earth,

Who hast displayed Thy splendor above the heavens!

2From the mouth of infants and nursing babes. Thou hast established strength,

Because of Thine adversaries, To make the enemy and the revengeful cease.

3When I consider Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers,

The moon and the stars, which Thou hast ordained;

4What is man, that Thou dost take thought of him?

And the son of man, that Thou dost care for him?

5Yet Thou hast made him a little lower than God,

And dost crown him with glory and majesty!

6Thou dost make him to rule over the works of Thy hands;

Thou hast put all things under his feet,

7All sheep and oxen, And also the beasts of the field,

8The birds of the heavens, and the fish of the sea,

Whatever passes through the paths of the seas.

9O Lord, our

Lord, How majestic is Thy name in all the earth!

LEARNING Individual report 2

I was born in a small village (in Hwasoon country, Cheonranam-do, in the south of Korea). Because my family was poor. I had to come to Seoul and get a job after graduating from middle school.

I didn't like being poor and miserable so I wanted to earn money and be rich. So I entered a factory which was making electric bulbs in the Kuro industrial complex. I was 17 years of age at the time.

I never mixed with my fellow workers. I just saved my wages my only joy was increasing the money in my bankbook. Time was going on. I knew I wouldn't have a chance to be rich even though I saved my money because my salary was so small. I could send just a little home to my parents.

At 20, longing to study more I entered a high school which conducted its educational program through radio. In this way I vaguely sought to escape the grim reality of my situation by eventually moving on to a college the same type. But I studied little, so that in the first term exam at the college I got 'F' in 2 subjects. And my health was failing because I had to both work and study without a break, even through the 4 years. I was often sick so I gave up the college. I was very distressed and felt lonely. I felt an outcast from this world.

My father didn't care for the family, but lived like a wastrel and died when I was 14. It was very difficult for me, as my mother and my father's second wife always argued in the village, and quarreled with my half-brothers and sisters. And I was distressed because of my lost elder sister whom I couldn't talk about I wanted to lean on someone but there was no one. From that time, I sought God and prayed naturally for help.

The only one who believed in God and taught me the Hymns was my elder sister. When she became mentally ill she used to sign the Hymns. After she was cured she leaned on God more and more. But eventually she became unwell again so I denied God. How was a God, who couldn't save my elder sister, to be followed and believed as our savior? I wanted to oppose Him.

However, in my lonely and difficult situations I would seek God. God called me to be beside Him. Following a fellow worker I started to go the Kuro-dong Catholic Church, learn the catechism and received Baptism on April 1990. But I didn't feel sure whether God was with me or not. Maybe I was weak.

After praying I was comforted and liked the kindly priest. After Baptism, I started to meet Young Christian Worker (Y.C.W.) members and to participate in their meeting (our team was called 'Hanbit', The one light, on June in same year. I came to know the YCW through the Wednesday Mass (The Mass which is offered by the the chaplain of the South Federation of Seoul Archdiocese of Korea for members of this Federation) in Don Bosco Center. It was there I started the worker catechism.

I felt good meeting all the young and happy workers. Through the team meeting I received the courage to share my anxieties, which I could not share with other workers or friends. And I appreciated the interest of my guide and of the priest in me.

The team meeting was programed each week according to the order of 'Review of Life'(ROL), 'The Gospel Sharing', 'Text Sharing' and 'Culture' etc. The Rol was not so difficult, but Gospel sharing was somewhat difficult.

The Gospel felt too far fetched and difficult for me who as yet was only a baby in the faith.

In the Gospel sharing, when the priest explained that the words, "The kingdom of God is among you." meant He is among the fellows of the factory and in the factory. I couldn't understand that easily. How can the Holy one be among us who put on dirty working clothes and are poor workers in a dark factory?

Up to this point I had lived seeking the easy jobs more so than the others and I was selfish. After listening to this word, "Jesus is among the fellow workers.", I didn't get angry but I cared when I met them. Because hating or loving one of them was hating or loving Jesus Himself.

Gradually meeting my group members became a joy. I began to realize that beneath therin happy faces there lay a lifetime of difficulties overcome. This realization brought me closer to them because I knew I was not the only one with problems. At such times I realized the truth of the principle "You should meet Jesus in every meeting with another."

In our Gospel-sharing, the difficulties in practising the gospel was often mentioned. When I shared the words, "To the extent that you do it to one of these brothers of mine, who is hungry, thirsty, a stranger, naked, sick and in prison, (even) to the least (of them,) you do it to me." (Mt 25,40) I promised to seek out such people in my factory and try to be with them.

One team member promised to contact her fellow worker to try to get close to her. She was retarded in her walk in addition to being a nuisance to everybody because of her narrowmindedness. And the next meeting we heard that it was not a sucess story but at least we saw an effort being made.

As to the words: "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." (Mt 5,3), even though I was comforted by the words of Jesus loving the poor still I couldn't accept them and wanted to escape from the continual practice of Gospel poverty.

The reason that I came to Church was the need to live in peace with the Lord without the suffering. Then Jesus said, "If anyone wishes to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow Me." (Lk 9,23) Jesus demands that those who fellow Him bear the Cross and imitate His Passion. Because up to that time I had a hard life, from now on I wanted to live easily and comfortably. But Jesus asked me to bear the Cross? I thought this too much. Jesus showed me that it is only through the Cross that the hopeless situations around me could be solved. The chaplain said to me, "The Passion led to the resurrection. Jesus didn't avoid suffering but chose it." Through this priest's words I learned to pray that God might give me the power to overcome the suffering involved in carrying my Cross..

One of my team members was a fellow worker at my factory. Our characters were different so we found it very hard to get along with each other. Especially we opposed each other about the problem of the union. I was acting as the editor of the union weekly and expressed the opinion that we fight with the factory manager and the company to redress union grievances. Then my fellow member emphasized concession and compromise rather than the fighting.

The quarrel at the team meeting caused strained relations in the factory and so for a long time we were disunited. But I asked myself; how can I be an apostle who preaches the Gospel of sharing my sufferings with my fellow if I don't love each member of the community which was supposed to be united in faith. After lengthy and difficult reflection we were able to overcome this problem.

I was learning the doctrine of Confirmation in October 1991. At that time the assembly line which I was working in my factory was due to be dismantled because of automation. The union suggested to me that I work as a standing officer of the union. I was meeting with those dismissed and I opposed the union chief at times. And there were serious problems between the union chief and the members. in such situations I feared and hesitated to act as a standing officer of the union.

But on the second day of the Conformation doctrine, opening the scriptures I read the following text with the priest. "The Lord said to Moses 'who has made man's mouth? Or who makes (him) dumb or deaf, or seeing or blind? Is it not I, the Lord. Now then go, and I even I, will be with your mouth, and teach you what you are to say.'" (Exo 4,11-12) This was the first time that I felt a Gospel text applying to me. It must be God speaking to me through the mouth of the priest, I thought.

I received courage from this word and decided to act as a standing officer. Even though I had big troubles, that was expected during my one year term. Whenever I was in troubles I received strength from the word, "Now then go, and I, even I, will be your mouth, and teach you what you are to say."

Through the sacrament of Confirmation I felt nearer to God. I didn't want to be a baby any more, even though I was weak. I prayed with care to be a worker for God.

When I was sharing the situations of the union at the weekly meeting I received confidence but sometimes I was confused because the priest and the team members who not experienced in union affairs, always spoke out of a faith motive and asked me to give up my feelings and to see thighs with the eyes of Christ, in judging and acting. How difficult it was to give up my feelings according to their demands! I ever cried after the meetings at times.

I remember these words of one militant to me, "There is noting accomplished without suffering." Enduring the hard situations in the union was accomplished through the faith of the members, of the priest and of course that faith which is the gift of God.

By not allowing our mutual quarrels and hurts to get me down, but rather using them as an opportunity to lessen the many problems that continuity of the union and the trust and mutual love of members is not the basic principle of operation, there can be no genuine on behalf of the workers. This realization was for me one beneficial learning experience.

Even though the Gospel sharing is felt always to be difficult it makes us remember the spirit of Jesus in life and enable us to examine our weakness. A few days ago one former member said to me. "You always seem very happy." I learned genuine friendship from the members and now I find joy in meeting with my fellow workers. To love the person is really the happy gift. Suddenly I think I am rich.

SHARE Let's share oneself with each other. After the sharing let's sing the song below and thank God for being in our lives.

PRAYER II: We praise God. God is Good.

We praise God. Alleluia! :II


Addendum 5 Let's meet the priest


- 'Trinity'

Who is the Father

Who is the Son

Who is the Holy Spirit

- Who is Jesus for me?

- Is there any scene or word of Jesus which I remember?

- Kingdom of God

- Gospel

- Church

- Sacrament

- Who is Jesus I met?

(Did I meet or feel (the presence of) Jesus? When? Where? How?)

- Please tell me how you will live after the First Communion.


Addendum 6 Baptism



In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit be with you all.



<NO. 247> (N.) What do you ask of God's Church?


What does faith offer you?

Eternal life.

<NO. 248> This is eternal life: to know the true God and the one he sent, Jesus Christ. God 8raised him from the dead to be the Lord of life and of all things, seen and unseen. In asking for baptism today you ask for this life. You would not do so unless you had come to know Christ and wanted to be his disciple. Have you completed your preparation for becoming a Christian? Have you listened to Christ's word and made up your mind to keep his commandments? Have you shared in our way of life and in our prayer?

I have.

<NO. 249> You are this candidate's godparent. Before God, do you consider him (her) a suitable person to be received today into full communion with Church?

I do.

You have spoken in this candidate's (or:N's) favor. Will you continue to help him (her) to serve Christ by your words and example?

I will.

< NO. 250>

Let us pray. Father of love and mercy, we thank you in the name of our brother (sister) who has experienced your guiding presence in his (her) life. Today, in the presence of your Church, he (she) is answering your call to faith: let him (her) find joy and fulfillment in his (her) new life. We ask this through Christ our Lord.



N., we welcome you into the church to share with us at the table of God's word.


READING 1 : Let what was seen in Christ Jesus be seen in you. (Ph 2,1-11)

2 1If I may advise you in the name of Christ and if you can hear it as the voice of love; if we share the same spirit and are capable of mercy and compassion, then I beg of you 2make me very happy: have one love, one spirit, one feeling. 3 do nothing through rivalry or vain conceit. On the contrary let each of you gently consider the others as more important than yourselves. 4Do not seek your own interest, but rather that of others. 5Let what was seen in Christ Jesus be seen in you: 6Though being divine in nature, he did not claim in fact equality with God, 7but emptied himself, taking on the nature of a servant, made in human likeness, and in his appearance found as a man. 8He humbled himself by being obedient to death, death on the cross 9That is why God exalted him and gave him the Name which outshines all names, 10so that at the Name of Jesus all knees should bend in heaven, on earth and among the dead, 11and all tongues proclaim that Christ Jesus is the Lord to the glory of God the Father.

This is the word of the Lord.

Thanks be to God


READING 2 : Let what was seen in Christ Jesus be seen in you. (Ph 2,1-11)

2 1If I may advise

This is the word of the Lord.

Thanks be to God


GOSPEL : The greatest commandment (Mk 12,28c-31)

The Lord be with you.

And also with you.

A leading from the holy gospel according to

Glory to you Lord.

12 28At that ti

This is the gospel of the Lord.

Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ



PRAYER <NO. 254>

Let us pray for our brother (sister) who is asking for Christ's sacraments, and for ourselves, sinners that we are: may we all draw nearer to Christ in faith and repentance and walk without tiring in the new life he gives us.

That the Lord will kindle in all of us a spirit of true repentance, let us pray to the Lord:

Lord, hear our prayer.

That we, who have been saved by Christ and have died to sin through baptism, may witness to his grace by our manner of life, let us pray to the Lord:

That the Lord will give our brother (sister) sorrow for his (her) sins and trust in God's love as he (she) prepares to meet Christ, his (her) Savior, let us pray to the Lord:

That by following Christ who takes away the sin of the world our brother (sister) will be healed of the infection of sin and freed from its power, let us pray to the Lord:

That the Holy Spirit will wash him (her) clean from sin and lead him (her) in the way of holiness, let us pray to the Lord:

That through his (her) burial with Christ in baptism he (she) will die to sin and live only for God, let us pray to the Lord:

That on the day of judgment he (she) will come before the Father bearing fruits of holiness and love, we pray to the Lord:

That the world for which the Father gave his beloved Son may believe in his love and turn to him, let us pray to the Lord:


<NO. 255> Almighty God, you sent your only Son to rescue us from the slavery of sin and to give to us the freedom of your children. We now pray for our brother (sister) who comes before you, acknowledging his (her) sinfulness. He (she) has faced temptation and been tested by the evil one. By the passion and resurrection of your Son, bring him (her) out of the power of darkness. With the grace of Christ, make him (her) strong and guide him (her) through life. We ask this through Christ our Lord.


<NO. 256> We anoint you with the oil of salvation in the name of Christ our Savior. May he strengthen you with his power, who lives and reigns for ever and ever.


May Christ our Savior strengthen you with his power, for he is Lord for ever and ever.




<NO. 257> Dear friends: Let us ask God our Father to be merciful to our brother (sister) N. who is asking for baptism. He has called him (her) to this hour. May he grant him (her) the riches of his light and strength to follow Christ with a courageous heart and to profess the faith of the Church. May he give him (her) the new life of the Holy Spirit, the Spirit whom we are about to ask to come down upon this water.


<NO. 258 215> Father, you give us grace through sacramental signs which tell us of the wonders of your unseen power. In baptism we use your gift of water which you have made a rich symbol of the grace you give us in this sacrament. At the very dawn of creation your Spirit breathed on the waters, making them the wellspring of all holiness. The waters of the great flood you made a sign of the waters of baptism that make an end of sin and a new beginning of goodness. Through the waters of the Red Sea you led Israel out of slavery to be an image of God's holy people set free from sin by baptism. In the waters of the Jordan your Son was baptized by John and anointed with the Spirit. Your Son willed that water and blood should flow from his side as he hung upon the cross. After his resurrection he told his disciples; "Go out and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

Father, look now with love upon your Church and unseal for it the fountain of baptism. By the power of the Spirit give to the water of this font the grace of your Son. You created man in your own likeness: cleanse him from sin in a new birth to innocence by water and the Spirit.

(The celebrant touches the water with his right hand and continues:)

We ask you, Father, with your Son to send the Holy Spirit upon the water of this font. May all who are buried with Christ in the death of baptism rise also with him to newness of life. We ask this through Christ our Lord.



<NO. 259 217> Do you reject sin so as to live in the freedom of God's children?

I do.

Do you reject the glamor of evil and refuse to be mastered by sin?

I do.

Do you reject Satan, father of sin and prince of darkness?

I do.


<NO. 260 219> N., do you believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth?

I do.

Do you believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord, who was born of the Virgin Mary, was crucified, died, and was buried, rose from the dead, and is now seated at the right hand of the Father?

I do.

Do you believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting?

I do.


<NO. 261262 220221>

N., I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.



God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, has freed you from sin, given you a new birth by water and the Holy Spirit, and welcomed you into his holy people. He now anoints you with the chrism of salvation. As Christ was anointed Priest, Prophet, and King, so may you live always as a member of his body, sharing everlasting life.



N., you have become a new creation and have clothed yourselves in Christ. Take this white garment and bring it unstained to the judgement seat of our Lord Jesus Christ that you may have everlasting life.



<NO. 265> Godparents, please come forward to give the newly baptized the light of Christ.

You have been enlightened by Christ. Walk always as a child (children) of the light and keep the flame of faith alive in your heart(s). When the Lord comes, may you go out to meet him with all the saints in the heavenly kingdom.



<NO 268.> N., born again in Christ by baptism, you have become a member of Christ and of his priestly people. Now you are to share in the outpouring of the Holy Spirit among us, the Spirit sent by the Lord upon his apostles at Pentecost and given by them and their successors to the baptized.

The promised strength of the Holy Spirit which you are to receive will make you more like Christ and help you to be a witness to his suffering, death, and resurrection. It will strengthen you to be an active member of the Church and to build up the Body of Christ in faith and love.

Let us pray, dear friends, to God the all-powerful Father that he will pour out the Holy Spirit on the newly baptized, to strengthen him (her) with his abundant gifts and anoint him (her) to be a more like Christ, his Son.

<NO. 269> All-powerful God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, by water and the Holy Spirit you freed your son (daughter) from sin and gave him (her) Helper and Guide. Give him (her) the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of right judgment and courage, the spirit of knowledge and reverence. Fill him (her) with the spirit of wonder and awe in your presence. We ask this through Christ our Lord.


<NO. 270 > N., be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit.


Peace be with you

And also with you.


- "Chapter Rite of initiation for children of catechetical age"

(No. 70) in Rite of Christian initiation of adults

You have put on Christ, in him you have been baptized. Alleluia, alleluia.


Dearly beloved, you are reborn in baptism. You are now called children of God, for so indeed they are. In confirmation you will receive the fullness of God's Spirit. In holy communion you will share the banquet of Christ's sacrifice, calling God your Father in the midst of the Church. In your name, in the Spirit of our common sonship, let us pray together in the words our Lord has given us:

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be the name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.


God the Father, through his Son, the Virgin Mary's child, has brought joy to all Christian mothers, as they see the hope of eternal life shine on their children. May he bless the mothers of these children. May they be one with them in thanking him for ever in heaven, in Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen.

God is the giver of all life, human and divine. May he bless the fathers of these children. With their wives they will be the first teachers of their children in the ways of faith. May they be also the best of teachers, bearing witness to the faith by what they say and do, in Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen.

By God's gift, through water and the Holy Spirit, we are reborn to everlasting life. In his goodness, may he continue to pour out his blessings upon all present, who are his sons and daughters. May he make them always, wherever they may be, faithful members of his holy people. May he send his peace upon all who are gathered here, in Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen.

May almighty God, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, bless you. Amen.)


Addendum 7 Cannon Law

- THE CANNON LAW (John Paul )





204 1. The Christian faithful are those who, in as much as they have been incorporated in Christ through baptism, have been constituted as the people of God; for this reason, since they have become sharers in Christ's priestly, prophetic and royal office in their own manner, they are called to exercise the mission which God has entrusted to the Church to fulfill in the world, in accord with the condition proper to each one.

2. This Church, constituted and organized as a society in this world, subsists in the Catholic Church, governed by the successor of Peter and the bishops in communion with hem.

205 Those baptized are fully in communion with the Catholic Church on this earth who are joined with Christ in its visible structure by the bonds of profession of faith, of the sacraments and of ecclesiastical governance.

206 1. Catechumens are in union with the Church in a special manner, that is, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, they ask to be incorporated into the Church by explicit choice and are therefore united with the Church by that choice just as by a life of faith, hope and charity which they lead; the Church already cherishes them as its own.

2. The Church has special care for catechumens; the Church invites them to lead the evangelical life and introduces them to the celebration of sacred rites, and grants them various prerogatives which are proper to Christians.

207 1. Among the Christian faithful by divine institution there exist in the Church sacred ministers, who are also called clerics in law, and other Christian faithful, who are also called laity.

2. From both groups there exist Christian faithful who are consecrated to God in their own special manner and serve the salvific mission of the Church through the profession of the evangelical counsels by means of vows or other sacred bonds recognized and sactioned by the Church. Although their state does not belong to the hierarchical structure of the Church they nevertheless do belong to its life and holiness.




208 In virtue of their rebirth in Christ there exists among all the Christian faithful a true equality with regard to dignity and the activity whereby all cooperate in the building up of the Body of Christ in accord with each one's own condition and function.

209 1. The Christian faithful are bound by an obligation, even in their own patterns of activity, always to maintain communion with the Church.

2. They are to fulfill with great diligence the duties which they owe to the universal Church and to the particular church to which they belong according to the prescriptions of law.

210 All the Christian faithful must make an effort, in accord with their own condition, to live a holy life and to promote the growth of the Church and its continual sanctification.

211 All the Christian faithful have the duty and the right to work so that the divine message of salvation may increasingly reach the whole of humankind in every age and in every land.

212 1. The Christian faithful, conscious of their own responsibility, are bound by Christian obedience to follow what the sacred pastors, as representatives of Christ, declare as teachers of the faith or determine as leaders of the Church.

2. The Christian faintful are free to make known their needs, especially spiritual ones, and their desires to the pastors of the Church.

3. In accord with the knowledge, competence and preeminence which they possess, they have the right and even at times a duty to manifest to the sacred pastors their opinion on matters which pertain to the good of the Church, and they have a right to make their opinion known to the other Christian faithful, with due regard for the integrity of faith and morals and reverence toward their pastors, and with consideration for the common good and the dignity of persons.

213 The Christian faithful have the right to receive assistance from the sacred pastors out of the spiritual goods of the Church, especially the word of God and the sacraments.

214 The Christian faithful have the right to worship God according to the prescriptions of their own rite approved by the legitimate pastors of the Church, and to follow their own form of spiritual life consonant with the teaching of the Church.

215 The Christian faithful are at liberty freely to found and to govern associations for charitable and religious purposes or for the promotion of the Christian vocation in the world; they are free to hold meetings to pursue these purposes in common.

216 All the Christian faithful, since they participate in the mission of the Church, have the right to promote or to sustain apostolic action by their own undertakings in accord with each one's state and condition; however no undertaking shall assume the name Catholic unless the consent of competent ecclesiastical authority is given.

217 The Christian faithful since they are called by baptism to lead a life in conformity with the teaching of the gospel, have the right to a Christian education by which they will be properly instructed so as to develop the maturity of a human person and at the same time come to know and live the mystery of salvation.

218 Those who are engaged in the sacred disciplines enjoy a lawful freedom of inquiry and of prudently expressing their opinions on matters in which they have expertise, while observing a due respect for the magisterium of the Church.

219 All the Christian faithful have the right to be free from any kind of coercion in choosing a state in life.

220 No one is permitted to damage unlawfully the good reputation which another person enjoys nor to violate the right of another person to protect his or her own privacy.

221 1. The Christian faithful can legitimately vindicate and defend the rights which they enjoy in the Church before a competent ecclesiastical court in accord with the norm of law.

2. The Christian faithful also have the right, if they are summoned to judgment by competent authority, that they be judged in accord with the prescriptions of the law to be applied with equity,.

3. The Christian faithful have the right not to be punished with canonical penalties except in accord with the norm of law.

222 1. The Christian faithful are obliged to assist with the needs of the Church so that the Church has what is necessary for divine worship, for apostolic works and works of charity and for the decent sustenance of ministers.

2. They are also obliged to promote social justice and, mindful of the precept of the Lord, to assist the poor from their own resources.

223 1. In exercising their rights the Christian faithful, both as individuals and when gathered in association, must take account of the common good of the Church and of the rights of others as well as their own duties toward others.

2. In the interest of the common good, ecclesiastical authority has competence to regulate the exercise of the rights which belong to the Christian faithful.




224 In addition to those obligations and rights which are common to all the Christian faithful and those which are determined in other canons, the lay Christian faithful are bound by the obligations and possess the rights which are enumerated in the canons of this title.

225 1. Since the laity like all the Christian faithful, are deputed by God to the apostolate through their baptism and confirmation, they are therefore bound by the general obligations and enjoy the general right to work as individuals or in associations so that the divine message of salvation becomes known and accepted by all persons throughout the world; this obligation has a greater impelling force in those circumstances in which people can hear the gospel and know Christ only through lay persons.

2. Each lay person in accord with his or her condition is bound by a special duty to imbue and perfect the order of temporal affairs with the spirit of the gospel; they thus give witness to Christ in a special way in carrying out those affairs and in exercising secular duties.

226 1. Lay persons who live in the married state in accord with their own vocation are bound by a special duty to work for the upbuilding of the people of God through their marriage and their family.

2. Because they have given life to their children, parents have a most serious obligation and enjoy the right to educate them; therefore Christian parents are especially to care for the Christian education of their children according to the teaching handed on by the Church.

227 Lay Christian faithful have the right to have recognized that freedom in the affairs of the earthly city which belongs to all citizens; when they exercise such freedom, however, they are to take care that their actions are imbued with the spirit of the gospel and take into account the doctrine set forth by the magisterium of the Church; but they are to avoid proposing their own opinion as the teaching of the Church in questions which are open to various opinions.

228 1. Qualified lay persons are capable of assuming from their sacred pastors those ecclesiastical offices and functions which they are able to exercise in accord with prescriptions of law.

2. Lay persons who excel in the necessary knowledge, prudence, and uprightness are capable of assisting the pastors of the Church as experts or advisors; they can do so even in councils, in accord with the norm of law.

229 1. Lay persons are bound by the obligation and possess the right to acquire a knowledge of Christian doctrine adapted to their capacity and condition so that they can live in accord with that doctrine, announce it, defend it when necessary, and be enabled to assume their role in exercising the apostolate.

2. Lay persons also possess the right to acquire that deeper knowledge of the sacred sciences which are taught in ecclesiastical universities or faculties or in institutes of religious sciences by attending classes and obtaining academic degrees.

3. Likewise, the prescriptions as to the required suitability having been observed, lay persons are capable of receiving from legitimate ecclesiastical authority a mandate to teach the sacred sciences.

230 1. Lay men who possess the age and qualifications determined by decree of the conference of bishops can be installed on a stable basis in the ministries of lector and acolyte in accord with the prescribed liturgical rite; the conferral of these ministries, however, does not confer on these lay men a right to obtain support or remuneration from the Church.

2. Lay persons can fulfill the function of lector during liturgical actions by temporary deputation; likewise all lay persons can fulfill the functions of commentator or cantor or other functions, in accord with the norm of law.

3. When the necessity of the Church warrants it and when ministers are lacking, lay persons, even if they are not lectors or acolytes, can also supply for certain of their offices, namely, to exercise the ministry of the word, to preside over liturgical prayers, to confer baptism, and to distribute Holy Communion in accord with the prescriptions of law.

231 1. Lay persons who devote themselves permanently or temporarily to some special service of the Church are obliged to acquire the appropriate formation which is required to fulfill their function properly and to carry it out conscientiously, zealously, and diligently.

2. With due regard for can. 230 1, they have a right to a decent remuneration suited to their condition; by such remuneration they should be able to provide decently for their own needs and for those of their family with due regard for the prescriptions of civil law; they likewise have a right that their pension, social security and health benefits be duty provided.


Addendum 8 One Young Worker is more precious than

all the gold in the world

1. Young Christian WorkerChristian Workers Movement (YCWCWM)

1) Young Christian Worker (YCW)

Young Christian Worker Movement (Y.C.W.) was founded by Fr. Joseph Cardijn in 1925 as a movement for Young workers. This movement was spread over many countries because of its good spirit and good method.

Fr. Cardijn felt the necessity of another movement to help in a concrete way all aspects of workers' lives even though the workers' union and relative movements had done a lot of good.

So the YCW was born. This has awakened workers to the dignity and values of the human person. It seeks to instill a christian mission not just in the lives of the workers in the immediate area but in the lives of workers all over the world. First of all, the worker must be awakened to the problems around him and then to the necessity to change himself and his environment in order to solve these problems. To be effective, it must lead the workers to remedy the various situations through sharing their life experiences through critical examination of structures and then through judging. Injustice, evil structures, righteous anger, and ideology are all part of this awakening. True awakening is being able to critically analyze a situation and then to do what one can to remedy it.

This action of YCW is not removing fish from dirty water, and putting them in the clean water of the Church. It is to clean the dirty water of the world so that the fish can thrive.

2) Three truths of YCW

YCW sees God and the world through the following three truths:

The truth of faith - God promised to share His essence, life, love and happiness with the all young workers.

The truth of experience - But this plan of God seems to be thwarted in this world. In each area of the world, oppression, hunger, war, and injustice are wide spread especially through low wages, long working hours, industrial accidents, ignorance, and inferiority complexes of the young workers.

The truth of action - These truths of the belief and the experience contradict each other. In the face of the truth of experience the truth of faith seems unbelievable. In this conflict young workers must form an organization which is centered on Christ changing the world according to the will of God. This is the essential mission of YCW.

3) The Principles of YCW - SEE, JUDGE, ACT

(1) SEE

The members of YCW apply practical education even to matters which might easily be overlooked. Change in society is brought about by change in the individual, which in turn, begins with careful attention to small matters.

The standard of this SEE is just the same as that of the Lord who sees the world. Seeing the world with the Lord's eyes, you can see true liberation from anxiety, selfishness and desire.

Just as the elephant (in the story) was known through the combined opinions of the various blind men who touched various different parts of the animal, so each one of us must recognize his limits and be willing to accept the opinions of other members.

The good leader is not he who teaches but he who integrates the various opinions of the members.


To SEE all the details helps to JUDGE rightly. And one should judge in the light of the meaning of the Gospel, one's conscience, and the social norms. The good militant (any member who has been active in the YCW for 12 years and then taken 'the oath of the militant' to witness to the Gospel and lead his team) does not judge any matter tactlessly without hearing the opinions of the other members. Rather he tries to get the members to think for themselves and form their own judgments through questioning.

The standard of JUDGEment is "What does the Lord think?", "What would the Lord do in this situation?", "What does the Lord ask of me in this situation?", "What does the Lord want me to do?", etc. to find the will of God!

(3) ACT

Even though SEEing clearly and JUDGing rightly produces no results unless there be ACTing. In this ACTion there must be the love of God. ACTion begins from the small things which you can do and extends to the things which are more difficult. The changing of the individual and of society should also begin with the small tasks which are easily done.

The action is characterized by the following:

ACTing 'first'

ACTing 'with'

leading and pushing others to ACT

In any work, unless there is action first, others will do nothing and there will be no change for the better. The 'act first' principle is very important. Then, never act alone but act 'with' others so that society can be changed. Try to get others to change themselves.

When united action is not possible, preparations and suggestions as to how to do the work should be presented. By doing this one can achieve unity in diversity and in this way solidarity with other movements can be established for concerted effort to change the world.

4) The acting style of YCW

YCW meets once a week and talks about the lives of the members sharing concretely their sufferings, and joys, without any exaggerations.

The first week, is 'Review of Life.' This consists of an examination of one's life with the eyes of Christ; JUDGing these according to the will of the Lord and promising, to ACT accordingly.

The second week, is 'Gospel Sharing'. This consists of a review of life in which the results of the promises of the previous week are viewed in the light of the Gospel.

The third week, is 'Text Sharing'. This is using the handbook or some other texts which are relevant to the sharing of last week.

The fourth week, is 'Group Discussion' eg (the labor law, hobbies, social problems, etc) or 'Culture' (movie, the sharing of the book, visiting the home of each member, play) or 'Seminar' (on the spirit and teaching of Joseph Cardijn and YCW and the Church) or The deeper 'Review of Life' among the sharings of the months (cf. 3. ROL below), or the prayers or spiritual exercises in this book.

The YCW evangelizes one's self, one's factory/office or working place and then the labor working world through the sharing and continuous activity of its members.

The YCW trusts the capability of each young worker; makes a worker responsible for his/her life and endeavors to share and solve the problems of fellow workers and neighbors. Thus the YCW is 'the only missionary' who is sent out into the lay apostolate within the working world, by the Lord and by His Church. Cardinal Cardijn said, "One Young Worker is more precious than all the gold in the world." and "The most suitable missionary is the worker himself/herself."

5) The organization of the YCW:

The YCW is now in 100 countries, with International headquarters where and an Intercontinental Federation. The YCW education system is not by lectures but by the sharing of its members and thus educating each other. So the YCW is called 'the school which is not made of bricks.' Rather than being concerned with the organization as such, the YCW is more concerned with the activity of each member and with the way in which activity contributes towards the spiritual and temporal welfare of each member and of society as a whole.

6) 7 activities of the YCW:

(1) Educational Activity

The center of the YCW Activity is its Educational Activity. Since YCW members are busy in their workplace, they have little time. For reading, emotional growth or hobbies. ward discovery and growth in human dignity and the importance of working in the light of Christ's teachings.

(2) Activity for Workers

The YCW is composed of young male and female workers. The activities are done by them, for them and among them. Central are the workers who act as leaders or helpers or messengers in the working place. That is, Worker-Activity of the YCW has pride and the members live by taking the initiative themselves.

But the YCW itself never forms a union or demands a change in working conditions in the name of YCW. Rather each member who is educated in the YCW acts according to his/her judgement. Of course, the YCW helps and supports in the case of poor judgment or in ability of any member.

(3) Representative Activity

The YCW recognizes the importance of each worker and acts accordingly. But its organization represents the Church as it acts to save the working world and society in general.

(4) Service Activity

The Service Activity is not to serve the miserable neighbors who are far form the worker but to serve the worker who is alone and suffering in the working place and to help him to improve his lot.

(5) General Activity

The YCW is not for a few chosen workers or a special class. The YCW members contact anyone for the purpose of extending friendship and thus set up a chain-reaction of love.

(6) Evangelizing Activity

The YCW opens its membership to all whether they be a Christian or not. Rather than insisting on Baptism and conversion, the members evangelize by showing forth Christ to others by the example of devoted lives.

(7) International Activity

The YCW has spread to over 100 countries in the world. So the working brothers and sisters of each country are one family in the YCW community. An international council which is held every 4 years addresses common problems, and decides to act in solidarity with all countries.

7) Christian Workers Movement (CWM/ MMTC in French)

This can be considered simply as the married YCW. Its members take the role of evangelizing the factory/office, the family and children and the local community. YCW may be considered the flower, CWM may be considered the fruit.

2. The life of the Cardinal Joseph Cardijn, the founder

- Fr. J. Fornero

former the chaplain of the International Young Workers Movement

Cardijn experienced the social conditions in the workers' home and questioned, "Why should these accidents/situations happen?" At this period was his SEEing. He was awakening to the plight of the poor through the faith he got from his parents. His mother Louisa said to him, "I can buy nice things for you, but can I buy chocolate for the children who are poorer than you are? Here's your pocket money! You should share this with your poor friend?" She always taught him to remember his poor neighbors and to take an interest in them.

When he studied in the seminary and returned home, his friends said to him, "You are the follower of the rich." And he was shunned by his friends and in suffering because his friends were not going to Church. Returning to the seminary he started to question, "Why should the workers leave the Church? What is the relation between work and the Church? Between work and faithf?" And he had time to study and talk about the worker problem. "What connection has this Church, this system, with the faith of the workers? What affection does the Church give them? Who am I? Is the worker a machine, animal or slave?" He questioned himself and his fellows continuously and passed the stage of JUDGing.

Cardijn was ordained in 1906 and decided to offer himself to help the workers. And even though his eyes saw the sky his two feet stood on the earth. He thought the Church didn't help the young workers who had become degraded by then, and its charity usually overemphasized only social welfare. programs. He thought the reformation of the working conditions was not only to promote human growth, but to emphasize that the factory was not the worker selling his body but that the worker was a fully human dignified person who should solve his own problems. So he found his role as 'a promoter of human rights' in the materialistic consumer society. He argued with himself to the end of his life, "Does religion impact lives or not? Is Christ with us in the poor? Who are the poor? What method shall I use?"

Even though I can't see God (hope) at present that does not mean he doesn't exist.


- The key of the meeting of YCW


1. Situation

- Everyone presents one fact, one situation (personal or of some young worker)

After that, we choose the fact/situation most interesting to us.

- The fact chosen will then be better explained (people involved, reactions etc)

- Do we know other people living in this similar situation ?

2. Consequences

- What are the consequences of this situation? :

* for those who are living (involved in them)

* for others (give details)

* for ourselves

We can link the consequences to different levels :

* economic

* social

* cultural

* personal

3. Causes

- What are the causes of this situation?

on personal, social, cultural and economic levels.


- What positive or negative values do you see in the fact/situation ?

- What are the aspirations of those who are living in these situations ?

- What did God/Jesus say or do in similar situations (Bible inquiry) ?

- How do we discover the presence of the risen Jesus in this fact/situation ?

- What call to action from Christ do we receive through this fact/situation ?


- What must we do in order to bring about change in this situation ?

- What, whom ?

- What process/plan do we make to proceed with this action (in order to remedy the situation) ?

4 The feature of ROL

-Fr. J. Fornero

The starting point is very important in ROL because everything is directed by it. Some people accept the ROL as a 'technique' and so they take as the starting point something which arises from the general situation. But ROL is not a technique but a 'method.' When the starting point is too general no real action will follow.

We must practise seeing every situation with the eyes of Christ and not engage in detailed criticism and analysis. Christ knows people individually. We should find this original method in Cardijn and realize that this is from the starting point of Catholic Church's apostolate. From a pedagogical point of view, education is both analytical (coming from the above eg. instilled - revealed) and deductive (ie coming from one's own experience). Accordingly, the model of "the Gospel of true living", the team (group) meeting should help them to awareness in the light of the Gospel. Of course, interest in the person and in his/her personality, is needed at the same time interest in the structure is needed too. SEEing well is to see clearly the results in peoples' lives.

As to the scrutiny of any cause, it must always be remembered that in the ROL, there are several dimensions. Also rather than from some given situation, it is often better to start from some concrete life experience and avoid analytical procedures altogether. In seeking the cause you should talk not only about personal causes but structural ones too. (eg personal, social, cultural and economic causes.) Of course, there will be macro analyses in the NationalInternational meetings.

* In Jesus' time, even though the Jews had a faith they didn't practise it concretely so they were thought of as hypocrites. According to the pastoral constitution of the church in Vat. no. 42, when life is divorced from belief we have hypocrisy. Cardijn endeavoured to unite faith and life. Study seminars and discussions are not sufficient. You should find God in daily life using the YCW methodology. The world synod of bishops presented this method as a means of establishing a meaningful christian community in the Church.

Let's listen to the word of God with humility. God leads us in new directions through His word. After the Vatican council Fr. Congar said, "ROL is an important spirituality in the Church." YCW accepts the ROL as an important spirituality. Pascal said, "Unless you understand and learn from the incident which has happened you will indeed fall into fatalism."

Because of their biblical background the Hebrews accepted sincerely and seriously the happiness in their daily lives. In Genesis chapter 1, we see their concrete system of thinking. God is never the general God of the universe but the God who lives and shares in their lives. Paul also speaks not the theology of God but the immanence of the God who intervenes in our lives.

Firstly, just as we see in the case of Jesus, His life consisted of many incidents. We can see the manner in which Christ responded to these incidents. Also how He responded to incidents in the lives of people around Him. Jesus didn't play a joke on us but walked with us. He felt the suffering of the Masses. He was hungry etc! Every incident stimulated Him and His acts showed us the kingdom of God in action. You also should find the kingdom of God in the happiness of your lives. The Gospel is a response to matters that concern us. In the incident of the widow's offering we can feel how Jesus responded to it. Our concern is the starting point of our acts.

Secondly the Church is the sacramental companion that walks with us through all the important happenings from birth to death.

Thirdly, Jesus responded to each incident in two dimensions. At first He considered fully the will of God, and next he accepted the petitions (crying) of the people. When you listen to the petitions of others you too should respond in the same way. This is the spirit of ROL.

It is not easy to respond properly to each incident. A great deal of effort is required to understand some situations. In the parable of the prodigal son, we can see how analysis and interpretation are important and how "opportunity" and "risk" are both involved. As a believer don't misinterpret situations. As for the young worker, ROL gives him/her strength to believe and to act. Use it wrongly, there is a risk that faith be reduced to theory only, ROL is not magic and the Gospel is not a magical formula. ROL without faith is useless. It is necessary to apply the ROL method to those who do not believe.

Even though we often;

Christian ---------------------------------- God

try to find the faith in daily life, only a few people can find God in their daily lives.

Christian ---------------- sign ------------- God

When we find God in the daily signs, we can try to really meet Him. Even though we meet God, ourselves Jesus has gone ahead of us. If we are not careful we will misunderstand the incidents.





the scripture and tradition ------- Christian ------- incidents

It is very difficult for a believer on his/her own to find the will of God in the happenings of life. So he/she must receive help from the scriptures and tradition. On the other hand, even though we discover the incidents, sometimes "The incidents can call us." Thus we can understand the incidents in the scripture more clearly. The spirituality of ROL is not simply to find God in life but to find the will of God through the help of the scripture and tradition.

Cardijn's method of ROL starts with the changing of one's mind, that is, conversion. Much time is needed to change the structures around us. But conversion and inner change we can at least try to accomplish ourselves. In the Holy Father's Encyclical letter of 'eighty years after', the Pope stressed the YCW principle once again in the words, "By analyzing one's situations in the light of the Gospel. etc." This is not "a technique nor magic" (no. 4) but a method that is highly effective.

5. The Spirituality of the Review of Life

- Pere Olivier de Berranger, Seoul, Korea, October 1992,

'presented on the meeting of East Asia YCW'

For those of us gathered here the review of life is something we know quite well. From the moment we made our first contact with the YCW the review of life was made known to us and we have continued to try to become more familiar with it. Perhaps during a team meeting which went well or during a recollection day which left us with a deep impression we felt as if from here on in we'd be able to be more adept at the review of life method and then the next time we tried it we failed. In our discouragement we say to ourselves, "the review of life is tough". We become hesitant to try the review of life again or we do a lot of other things (in the team meeting) under the guise of the review of life.

I do not want to tell you how to make the review of life. There are various methods of making it. I prefer to speak to you about the spirit of, and how to enter into the process of the review of life, whether we succeed or fail at it. Cardinal Cardijn, as you well know, was a man of action. When he elaborated the SEE - JUDGE - ACT method for the young workers of the world, he didn't want it just to be for "impressions". He wanted to respond to the normal desire of the young for efficiency. He put at their disposition a method capable of transforming their life circumstances day by day. For Cardijn it was a question of helping them to go from simple things and if possible, little by little, to reach out to an action which would be capable of modifying the mechanisms and the behavior which hindered them from becoming truly daughters and sons of God.

In this consists the spirit of the review of life. At the onset we must have the conviction that we should not be deaf, dumb, blind and paralyzed in front of the hard reality of work life. Cardijn taught us to believe in the hidden possibilities of each man and woman regardless of age or circumstances. He taught us to believe in their sense of solidarity with others.

Let's go a little further, Cardijn was a man of action but deeply imbued with Christian faith. In his spirit of faith he was aware that we were beings created by God our deep seated thirst to be respected and to live freely is a tenacious witness of this in us.

Cardijn also believed in God, the Father who calls each man and woman to resemble Christ Jesus, his Son, who became man for the salvation of all. When we speak about spirituality or the spiritual life, in the full christian sense of the word, it means a constant desire to resemble Jesus, the Son and Saviour. And we cannot reach this only with our own strength. We need the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Father and the Son. Christian life is trinitarian or there is no Christian life. For this reason when we are among Christians we always begin our encounters with the Sign of the Cross; "In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit."

Now we will enter into the three stages of the review of life; I. SEE, . JUDGE, . ACT. And each time we will ask ourselves two things :

A. How will we use all our human capacities to go through these three steps in the most efficient and intelligent way possible? This process can be made with whomever shares our aspirations whether this person be a christian or not. This is the first step of a human being who realizes that he/she has been created and is thus a responsible being.

B. How can we enter more deeply into the dynamism of the review of life, ie. to try to see reality with the eyes of Christ, to understand life with the mentality of Christ, and to transform life with His patience and especially with a hope that takes root in us more firmly? This is the response of persons who know that they have been called.

Regard Reality Face to Face.

A. When we speak of the SEE in the review of life, it's clear that this action is not limited to a mere viewing, in the physical sense of the word. It would be better to say : seeing, listening, understanding, taking note of, remembering, expressing and transmitting. For example let's imagine a mother who is at home with her 4 year old child and who leaves the room for 5 minutes. During that time the phone rings. Even little children today know how to pick up the receiver and answer : "Mommy's not here now" or something similar. When the child's mother comes back the child is quite capable of telling his/her mother that the phone rang and whether it was a man or a woman who had made the call, and perhaps even to recognize the voice of the caller. According to the child's ability, he/she will be able to transmit a more or less faithful or complete message to the mother enabling the child's mother to judge whether or not it's necessary to call the person back or to wait for the person to call back.

Here we see that the review of life is not an extraordinary thing. It begins from our most normal experiences in life. However as we go ahead in the practice of the review of life, it will develop in us the capacity of observing, taking note of events and transmitting things as we observe in children. Transmitting things and events faithfully depends on the way we faithfully perceive information. This double faithfulness will give the SEEING aspect a certain quality in the review of life. After all "review" means to see something twice.

I want to insist on a certain exactness and not on extensiveness. Let's take another very ordinary example. When we ask people to direct us to the Main Post Office or the Cathedral, sometimes they give us such a detailed explanation that we are worse off than before we asked them. We'd have lost less time if they simply said : "Excuse me, but I'm not quite sure myself. You'd do better to ask a taxi driver or someone in one of the shops."

Therefore in the review of life we should try to faithfully transmit what we have seen or heard about the fact or event we are talking about. We should avoid adding to the description of the event all elements which risk fuzzing up the story. Here we should keep in mind the gospels. They describe a wedding or the healing of a sick person. In contrast to the newspaper style of describing events, the gospels don't go into useless detail. They go right to the heart of the matter. It's probably because the gospel authors knew exactly what they wanted to say when they wrote. They dropped all the rest.

This very effort to faithfully observe and transmit the facts and events of our life in a team meeting is in and of itself already a spiritual act. Thus we learn to be faithful to the reality of things rather than to the way we imagine, desire or fear them to be. Such an effort places us in front of the truth, in front of what is real and it frees us from the biases we might have. It helps us to go beyond tell-tale gossip and to verify things for ourselves. Such an effort forces us to be honest about what we know and to recognize that there are things we don't know. Moreover, it's a good way of opening ourselves to a more just understanding of situations and the persons involved in these situations. I would like to recall an incident when I was a young priest and I began my action as a chaplain to a YCW team meetings. In one of these encounters I spoke to him of a certain "Pierre" who worked in a pipe factory in a nearby industrial area. "When did he begin to work there? How many workers are there in his factory? Are there other young people in the factory with him?"

It wasn't a police-type, or anti-espionage interrogation. Thanks to this type of precise questioning my powers of observation as a chaplain were enhanced, and I was able to assist the YCW's to be more aware of their own circumstances and surroundings and to express the various aspects of them to their companions. Thus they were able to form themselves into key leaders capable of acting in the reality in which they found themselves.

The objective of this first step to "SEE" is to try to grasp reality as it presents itself to us without overlooking its evolution because life is always in motion. However if we have taken note of and communicated with faithfulness the elements of a situation, we will also be capable of understanding its transformation and explain this when it's necessary. Accordingly, you are well aware of how important it is in the YCW to take notes regularly on what occurs in our lives. The key leader's notebook was not devised in order to express what one feels. It's a tool used to focus my attention on the lives of those around me and the situations which influence those lives. I'm not saying that what I feel isn't important but the objective of the review of life is not to talk about myself, even if it might be important to do so at another moment so that I can overcome my isolation or my anger. In the review of life it isn't imagination or sentiments that are in first place. We try, as the gospel of John tells us "to live according to the truth so that we come into the light" (Jn 3,21). "To live according to the truth" does not mean to look down on our sentiments or our imagination. It means that we should hold them at a certain distance so that we give a rightful place to the JUDGE dimension, as we shall soon see.

Let's try to sum things up. "SEEing" demands of us faithful attention to situations and to the persons involved in these situations. This act, which is, in a certain sense, spontaneous can become more and more exact and precise, but there's a condition - we have to be honest with reality. It's from this basic attitude that we learn to "get out" of ourselves and to abandon our illusions. We become more and more attentive to others and we endeavour to note respectfully of what their life consists. We become apt to express ourselves in our team meetings as well as being attentive to not divulging something that would hurt anyone.

As I have already mentioned, it's not necessary to be a christian in order to regard reality face to face. Anyone who is a responsible individual can exercise this kind of insight on life and through the YCW evolve in expressing what one perceives. Christian life begins from faith. Faith consists in believing not only that we are created but also called, as I mentioned before. What does that mean? It means that God does not only want us to live as responsible persons. A responsible person is one who is capable of rendering an account of his/her actions. This begins with the awakening of reason and of conscience and continues all throughout life. To be called, as St. Paul tells us is to have received the calling "to be like the Son of God, similar to him" (Romans 8,29=-30) Jesus Christ. God calls all the men and women of the world, but believing means to try to answer this call.

B. Let's for a moment suppose that our "SEEing" is that of persons called in this manner and that we are trying to respond to the call of faith. This "SEEing" will become little by little Christ looking at the people and the circumstances around us. This looking with the eyes of Christ will see the fatigue of working youngsters who have to commute long hours to and from their place of employment and are obliged to work overtime; the long lines of young people on Saturday nights waiting to get into the disco clubs where they'll leave a good part of their paycheck trying to forget their everyday hardships; the girls on the assembly line who instead of helping each other get snippy with the workers who can't follow work pace etc. Or to the contrary it could be the eyes of Christ who see the group of young workers on the subway laughing and talking about their work day despite their fatigue; or the zeal of those others who in the factory mess hall try to organize a day out in the mountains; or the foreperson who doesn't always heel to the company line whenever a minor conflict erupts.

Such a regard is on the way to becoming a prayer.

It's the same regard that Jesus had for the crowds "who were harassed and helpless like sheep without a shepherd" and he turns toward his Father and asks Him "to send workers to gather the harvest." (Mk 1,16-17) Just like Jesus we will become attentive to the "crowds" and to individual persons as well. According to our temperament and formation, we could be tempted to see but one or two individuals. The risk would be to isolate these individuals from their milieu. Or to the contrary we could merely make an analysis of a company or of the life in a neighborhood which would be quite correct but without taking into con\sideration the lives of the persons concerned therein who are being called to action. The regard of the Lord never isolates a person from his/her circumstances and is never satisfied with an overall judgement.

Just before the miracle of the multiplication of bread, with which we all are quite familiar, Jesus saw the weariness and the hunger of the crowds following him, he was unwilling to send them away hungry lest they drop on the way. He also saw the willingness of his disciples, ready to work with him to serve these people, even if the disciples were unable to see how this would come about. "Give them something to eat." (Mt 14,16) that Andrew presented to him. Rather it was the starting point of the wonderful sign of the Bread of Life with which we nourish ourselves each time we participate in the Eucharist.

Thy eyes of the Lord see far and wide. The Samaritans recognized him as the Saviour of the world after the Samaritan woman introduced him to them as the person who showed her "the living water". Then Jesus said to his disciples "You say that in four more months it will be the harvest; now I say to you, look up the fields white and ready for harvesting." (Jn 4,35) Looking far and wide means to try to foresee in the present what might become the future. Thus we need the review of life. When we "see something twice" It's not only an attentive regard on the past but also an attempt to look to the future. Up till now I have spoken mostly about situations and persons. The review of life made well and often helps one to be more attentive to events so that we discover the meaning of this event in a person's life story, or in the history of a group or an institution. If we do this "SEEing" in a spirit of faith, then, just like the regard of Jesus we will be formed to associate ourselves to the action of God who "makes everything work for the good of those who love him." (Romans 8,28)

A Liberating Judgement

A. They say that two heads are better than one but unfortunately it isn't always so. Sometimes we are led to do and say things because of group or peer pressure. However when we've had a good team experience, this expression is quite true. Nevertheless at times we need the viewpoint of others to make an exact judgement of the circumstances. We will now speak about this as we try to explain the "JUDGE". Despite all my efforts to observe reality without bias, the limits of my experience are such that without realizing it my point of view is partial or even prejudiced. For example if I have just been transferred to region about which I am not familiar, I might have the tendency to misinterpret a word or an attitude I am unaccustomed to. Perhaps thanks to the YCW's of the region I might be able to correct my negative outlook. The review of life is an excellent way for me to broaden my point of view.

"JUDGE" means to enter intelligently into a situation in order to sort out the true from the false, the essential from the unnecessary; to see the cracks in the wall and where there's absolutely no chance to pass through. It means being able to determine what the stakes are as well as weighing the possibilities for action. At times a problem which seemed unsurmountable when one is alone can all of a sudden seem less formidable after it was talked over in the team meeting. Very often the opposite happens. An event which I considered unimportant can become very important when another team member recounts a similar event in the team meeting. The more we practice the review of life, the more we will be able to form a judgement based on standards and value systems which we discover together with our team mates. What standards? I would like to speak about objective criteria upon which we can establish a reference to sort out the true from the false, the essential from the unnecessary. What value system? We should gradually set up a hierarchy among the deep-seated motivations of our acts. Here's another example.

Let's take the case of a new YCW girl member who had been very active in the team meeting and who suddenly slips away from the scene for no apparent reason. That's a good starting point for a team review of life. Everyone is concerned about the missing girl member. In the nest team meeting the members find out that the missing girl member is pregnant and she's so ashamed of the fact that she won't come anymore to the team meeting. Wouldn't it be better to go to her and see if with the team's help she could face up to her situation in a more adult fashion? What objective standards could we use? Respect for the unmarried mother and the child to be born? The responsibility of the father? The importance of an eventual committment to marriage? All these things are certainly very important. What should be the deep-seated motivation we place at the top of our value system? I'm sure you won't be surprised if I tell you that it's your friendship for this girl, the fact that you believe in her and her capacity to overcome her shame and to assume the consequences of her situation in a calm and adult manner. She will be unable to do this unless she feels herself loved and accepted for what she is.

Just as the "SEEing" is not a police-type interrogation, the "JUDGE" is not at all a "courtroom" type of judging. "JUDGE" here means to situate oneself in the truth and the truth will make us free. It's not question of moralizing but of situating oneself together with one's comrades in a life situation that is true. And truth should never be separated from love. That's why one of the essential conditions to make a good review of life is to listen attentively to what each of the team members has to say in the meeting. As I mentioned in the preceding step on "SEEing", we would be careful to not offend anyone but at the same time we should be open to receive and to ask questions so that the situation be better understood. Now that we're about to make use of "liberating judgement", it's even more necessary to listen to our team members and see how they view the situation as well as to give our own viewpoint about the situation. In this common search for the truth there's a price to pay. By this I mean the mutual effort to stand back from the problem and be impartial. We must be careful, and we all know how difficult this is, not to project one's own experiences on others, as if they too had to take their turn in undergoing that experience. My past experiences are like luggage. Luggage can be useful. It can also be burdensome. It all depends on the way I use it.

B. Let's take a glance at the gospel. How deeply are we going to live this aspect of "JUDGE"? St. Paul tells us: "Do not be conformed to the world where you live, but rather be transformed through the renewal of your mind. You must discern the will of God, what is good, what pleases, what is perfect. " (Romans 12,2) "Do not be conformed" means not to be taken in by stylish slogans nor repeat the formulations of news commentators. Don't be concerned to say only what doesn't hurt anyone so as not to have problems. Jesus himself insists on this; "And why do you not judge for yourselves what is fit?" This is a call to freedom. A Christian doesn't remain on the surface of things; he knows that it's from the heart that come good and bad intentions, good and bad thoughts (cf. Lk, 6,45). From the gospel point of view, our greatest enemy is not so much our weakness as our hypocrisy. Jesus is constantly fighting hypocrisy.

And precisely since all of us are sinners, none of us has the right to be his brother's judge. Everyone is familiar with the gospel parable of the speck and the log (plank). It highlights quite aptly the preceding teaching of the Lord in Luke's gospel; "Be not a judge of others and you will not be judged; do not condemn and you will not be condemned; forgive and you will be forgiven; give and it will be given to you." (Lk 6,37) That's why, and it must be repeated, Cardijn's use of the term "JUDGE", when understood correctly, has nothing to do with a "courtroom" type of judgement. It should be interpreted rather in the light of what we have just mentioned in the epistle of St. Paul: it's a question of "discerning the will of God, what pleases, what is perfect."

Discerning means sorting things out, or better making distinctions, as they were wont to say in the old monasteries, between what was from man, what was from the devil and what was from God. And that's no easy task! The devil very often appears as an angel of light. He can play with our guilt feelings and urge us on to acts that might seem to be heroic. Alas! When we see the results of such acts, we might realize that we have merely flattered our own vanity and such acts even lead to catastrophe. A discernment which is pleasing to God never pushes us to be exalted. Such a discernment brings with it peace, joy, kindness and gentleness - "the fruits of the Spirit" (Galatians 5,22). To discern well we must depend on the Holy Spirit: "where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom." (2Corinthians 3,17)

Before we move on to action, we have to "first sit down to count the cost and judge whether we have enough to complete" the action. (cf. Lk. 14,28) That means we must be vigilant according to the gospel sense of the term - vigilant not only when we make the review of life but vigilant in the way we habitually live. Here we must call to mind Jesus' way of speaking of the "signs of the times": "When evening comes you say: 'It will be a good day for the sky is red.' And in the morning you say: 'Stormy weather today, for the sky in the east is red.' Hypocrites! If you know how to interpret the appearances of the sky, why can you not interpret the signs of the times?" (Mt 16,2-4). This doesn't mean to be conformist or non-conformist according to the latest rumors. Rather it's a call to judge events in a spirit of faith and to deal with things according to the mentality of Christ. (cf. 1Corinthians 2,15-16). Jesus' only desire was to discern the will of his Father and to conform his whole being to this hidden action present in the history of mankind: "Our Father in Heaven, holy be your come, your will be done on earth as in heaven" (Mt 6,9-10). As if groping in the dark we too have to look for the real meaning of event so that we might become worthy laborers for the kingdom of God. If we don't take the time to JUDGE according to God's will, we will be tempted in our haste to pull out both the weeds and the good grain as in the parable of the weeds (cf. Mt. 13,24-30). The "JUDGE" will prepare us to pass to action, but not "like a cymbal" but in charity (1Corinthians 13,1)

"Fellow Workers With God" (1 Corinthians 3,9)

A. A Spirituality of the review of life must be a spirituality of action, a huge field of action! Apart from our sleeping time, which is usually too short, isn't practically everything else we do action? To live means to be active and action has many and varied forms. Let's just observe what we do from morning till night: we get up, we wash, we do some physical exercises, perhaps we say a few prayers, we prepare our breakfast, we eat together with the family or by ourselves if we live alone, we clean the house, we take the bus or the subway to go to work, we meet our work comrades, we change our clothes and most of us go on like this till the late evening hours. I'm not talking about YCW activities, be they in solidarity with people in our neighborhood or in our workplace. Every act, even banal ones like brushing our teeth or picking up a needle, is "spiritual" provided we do it as a human being and not like an angel or a beast as Pascal tells us. We won't always be able to think about what we're doing, but we can aim for a certain quality in all we do. This will make us more apt to accomplish more difficult things meaningfully.

What does it mean to act as a human being? I would like to answer this question in three ways:

* "ACT" means to will.

* "ACT" means to choose.

* "ACT" means to love.

"ACT" means to will. We easily distinguish dynamic from inactive people. We can't always distinguish this from outer appearances because sometimes dynamism can be misleading and to the contrary we might discover hidden energies under the guise of tranquility. In our own personal experience we know well that we act differently according to whether we want or don't want something. The day we really want something we become energized and that shows up in our attitude. To the contrary, when our will is weak, we become flabby and the house could burn down and that wouldn't move us one bit.

A strong will is not necessarily will power running wild. There are people who in order to get what they want will use other people as pawns. How often in life we are made to suffer by managers or company owners who think only of production quotas and profit! We have to be very careful that this doesn't happen in YCW activity as well. This is not the will power we have just been talking about but the will to dominate. Not until we are able to conquer the temptation to make others bow before our plans will we be ready to truly collaborate with others. In the same way we tune up our guitars so that they be melodious, we also have to be in tune with others in order to accomplish a truly collective action.

When we control our will power, we will not become prey to discouragement. This kind of will power knows when to keep silent and when to make itself heard, and to be heard decisively when necessary. The heart of the problem is to know what one wants. This is true in all areas from the smallest to the greatest. If you want your office to be neat, clean it u! If you want to dialogue with your parents, begin by speaking to them! If you want your best friend to stop drinking, maybe you have to stop drinking too! If you want to change the atmosphere in your workplace, begin by discussing it with one or two work mates and then see what happens. If you want the YCW team to get off to a new start, you have to get together with the team members before the next meeting to prepare for this. Ignatius of Loyola, who was also a man of action, has told us that we have to express clearly what we want even when we pray, if we want our prayers to be answered.

"ACT" means to love. When we speak about will and choice, we are in one way or another approaching the question of love. For example let's look at the couple. When people love one another, they know what they want: reciprocal union, ie. to be intimately united one with the other. When people love another, they know that their choices will have consequences: "I love and choose you and not someone else." When two people love each other truly, they help each other grow mutually and their love will not be a closed-in reality like that of a pair of ship-wreck survivors on a life raft. A truly loving relationship normally results in a new openness for those of one's surroundings and for all beings in general. If this is not the case, then we have to ask ourselves whether or not this love is really mature.

This is only an example but it is a fundamental one. As has already been mentioned when we spoke about will power, here too we discover the desire for infinity. In every seriously committed action, the act of love is both a deep-seated cause as well as a project to be accomplished. A deep-seated cause: the secret dynamism which helps me go out of myself, throw off my habits, sacrifice my comfort and win over my laziness. A project; since in our society there are things which mutilate life and the true image of man, I have to do something about it. And here, in another manner, we will see the newness of the interplay of relations of which we spoke when we were talking about the couple. Even when a plan of action is well thought out, there are surprises which arise from the action as it is accomplished. The newness of each action and the primacy of life over our ideas reveals that in the world and in us there is something which eludes all mechanistic explanation. "I choose you and not someone else." Why? Who knows? Thus in an action which has a collective goal, unforeseen elements will often oblige us to modify the means we employed or even to modify the entire project. We have to be open to all possibilities. Otherwise the action will become paralyzed and we along with it. "ACT" means to be reborn, start out over again.

B. In conclusion I want to propose an exercise. Perhaps we'll need a moment of reflection. It should be an exercise of our memory and an exercise of hope. Ask yourselves, what has changed in you from the time you first came into contact with the YCW? Did your encounter with the YCW become for you an encounter with Jesus Christ as well? No matter what, this little exercise of memory will be, I think, very instructive. If you've written up your life story for the team meetings, you'll know quite well what I'm driving at. Each and every one of us has a unique story to tell, which is holy in the eyes of God, and holy in our eyes when we look at it in the spirit of faith. If that's true for one person who is converted, as Jesus taught us in the parable of the lost sheep (cf. Lk 15,7), would it not be as true for a team's story as well as for the history of the Church and of the world? "Who is wise and will observe these things, even they shall understand the loving-kindness of the Lord." (Psalm 107,43)

When we make this little effort at remembering, a feeling of hope will well up from within us. If in my life there had been such moments, such transformations in the past, things won't stop there. There'll be a lot of surprises in store for me and undoubtedly a lot of sorrows too. But to quote again St. Paul, " that hope does not deceive, because the love of God has already been poured into our hearts by the Holy Spirit given to us." (Roman 5,5)

As we said a few moments ago when we mentioned St. Ignatius of Loyola, we should know what we want when we pray. As Christians we know that activities which are not accompanied and directed by prayer don't go very far. Praying doesn't mean asking God to see things according to our point of view (or to do "our holy will"). Praying means trying to enter into God's point of view (or to do "His holy will"). Whoever loves God, loves what God loves. That person wants what God wants. Consequently his/her prayer is certain to be heard because what is asked for is that "his will be done on earth as it is in heaven". Is this truly what we want and what we ask for (in prayer)? As Jesus Prayed to his Father at Gethsemani" not what I want, but Which he manifested at the moment he accomplished the most extraordinary act of all times, the giving of his life for the salvation of the world. But just before this decisive moment, let's listen to what Jesus said to his disciples; "Truly, I say to you, he who believes in me will do the same works that I do; he will do even greater than these, for I am going where the Father is. And everything you ask in my name, I will do, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son." (Jn 14,12-13)

To better understand these words of Jesus, let's consider Cardijn. Jesus formed 12 apostles. How many apostles did Cardijn form? It would probably be impossible to know how many young men and women owe the discovery of their vocation in life thanks to Cardijn. But just as Jesus tells us, this work is his work. Jesus is alive among us and he continues to act and give glory to his Father through the actions of the saints and through all those Christians who take his promise seriously.

Nevertheless, as you see, this action cannot be separated from prayer: "And everything you ask in calling upon my Name, (ie. in communion with me, searching out what is pleasing to the Father and will save the world) I will do" (Jn 14,14). Elsewhere, Jesus states that in prayer we can be sure to receive his Holy Spirit because he tells us: "Even you evil people know how to give good gifts to your children; how much more then will the Father in Heaven give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!" (Lk 11,13).

Perhaps some of us will say: "All well and good, but how do we do all this concretely in our everyday field of action?" This, I think is a question of consulting our YCW key-member notebook (ie. the notes we take on our everyday life activity as a YCW member in preparation for the review of life). In these notes you'll find the echo and the traces of individual or collective actions that were accomplished over a long period of time or that just happened suddenly and which were transforming actions. Perhaps then you will say: "What does all this mean? What was accomplished in and through these actions?"

It would be helpful to remember how God called Jeremiah, the prophet, to struggle against the idols of his day and age: "Do not say: 'I am a child.' Go now to all those I send you; and say what I command you I give you authority to uproot and pull down, to destroy and overthrow, to build and to plant." (Jeremiah 1,7 and 10). Today's world is still full of idols. But unlike Jeremiah we don't have to overthrow them all by ourselves. There are many Christians and other men and women of good will at work in the world. Let's begin to work from the depths of our hearts. The Spirit of Jesus Christ breathes within us not to make us slaves but sons (Galatians 4,6-7). The Lord continues his liberating combat for humanity in and through us. Are we prepared to answer his call with love and perseverance?