THE PARISH PASTORAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN THE KOREAN CATHOLIC CHURCH

 

 

 

by

Heungbo Shim

 

 

Submitted to the faculty of

The Catholic Theological Union at Chicago

in partial fulfillment of the requirement for

the degree of

Doctor of Ministry

 

 

May 15, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

_____________________________

Professor Robert Schreiter CPPS

Thesis-Project Director

 

 

 

 

 

In memory of my father Jaepil Shim (1922-1992)

and my mother Sooyoung Lee (1926-1989)

and dedicated to the Church and readers

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright 2008 by Heungbo Shim. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

             I thank the Triune God through my father, Jaepil Shim; my mother, Sooyoung Lee; my two sisters, Sr. Heungim Shim and Heungsoon Shim; and the Church, especially the Archbishop of Seoul, Nicolas Cardinal Jinsuk Cheong, Auxiliary Bishop and Vicar General, Most Rev. Andrew Soojeong Yeom, D.D. and Auxiliary Bishops and monsignors, priests, religious, and laity of the Archdiocese of Seoul and the Korean Catholic Church. 

             I also thank the director of this thesis project, Fr. Robert Schreiter CPPS; faculty reader, Fr. Robin Ryan; my peer readers Fr. Frank Hoare SSC and Professor Victoria Yeung; the director of Ecumenical Doctor of Ministry Program at Catholic Theological Union of Chicago, Fr. Edward Foley Capuchin; all my peers in the Doctor of Ministry program; and my English tutor Steve Mcmillin. In addition, I thank all who have been interested in and supported my study, especially those who responded to my survey interview questions for this thesis project.

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

Abstract

 

Introduction

  1. The Concise Description of the Topic

  2. Limitations of Thesis-Project

  3. The Intended Audience of the Thesis-Project

  4. The Genesis and the Future of the Thesis-Project

  5. The Theological and Ministerial Import of the Topic

  6. The Methods Employed to Achieve the Goals of the Thesis-Project

  7. An Outline of the Various Chapters and Their Content

 

Chapter 1. The Changing Korean Pastoral Policy

  1.1. The Korean Catholic Church

    1.1.1. A Short History of the Korean Catholic Church

      1.1.1.1. The Introductory Period (1777-1791)

      1.1.1.2. The Persecution Period (1791-1886)

      1.1.1.3. The Right for Free Choice of Religion (1886-)

    1.1.2. General Review of Korean Catholic Church (2006)

      1.1.2.1. General Situation

    1.1.2.2. Religious, Seminarians, Lay missionaries, and Catechists

    1.1.2.3. Catholics and their Variation

  1.1.2.4. Male and Female Catholic and their Variation

  1.1.2.5. Male Catholics Variation by Ages

  1.1.2.6. Female Catholics Variation by Ages

    1.1.2.7. Sacramental Ministry (Baptism)

    1.1.2.8. Sacramental Ministry (Others)

  1.2. The Introductory Background of the Small Christian Community

  1.3. The Introductory Process of the Small Christian Community in the Seoul Archdiocese

  1.3.1. Searching for Pastoral Direction and Method of the Seoul Archdiocese (1992-1993)

  1.3.2. Responding to the Small Christian Community (1994)

  1.3.3. Conversing with the Small Christian Community (1995-1997)

  1.3.4. The Introductory Processes of the Small Christian Community in Korean Catholic Church

  1.3.4.1. The Seoul province

  1.3.4.2. The Daegu province

  1.3.4.3. The Kwangju province

1.4. The Documented experience: results of introducing the Small Christian Community in the Seoul Archdiocese

  1.4.1. The Results of Introducing the Small Christian Community

  1.4.2. The General Assignment

  1.4.3. Struggles in the Decision Making Process

  1.5. The 2007 Survey

  1.5.1. The Present Situation of Each Parish

  1.5.2. The Relations between the Small Christian Communities and the Organizations

    1.5.2.1. The Relations between Two

    1.5.2.2. The Reasons for Difficulties of Relation if They Exist

    1.5.2.3. Suggestion for the Relation

    1.5.3. The Decision Making Process

    1.5.3.1. The Listening

    1.5.3.2. The Decision Making Process

      1.5.3.3. Suggestion for the Listening and Decision Making Process

  1.5.4. The Results of the 2007 Survey

    1.5.4.1. The Relations between the Small Christian Communities and the Organizations

    1.5.4.2. The Decision Making Process

  1.6. Recent Integral Efforts for the Structure of the Decision Making Process

  1.6.1. The Existing Model of the Parish Pastoral Council of the Seoul Archdiocese

  1.6.2. The Image of the Parish Community of Communities of the Lumko Institute

  1.6.3. The Parish Pastoral Council Model of the Seoul Archdiocese Integral Pastoral Institute

  1.6.4. The Parish Pastoral Council Model of the Taegu Archdiocese

  1.6.5. The Parish Pastoral Council Model of the Suwon Archdiocese

  1.6.6. The Parish Pastoral Council Model of the Chuncheon Archdiocese

  1.6.7. The Result of Researching Models

 

Chapter 2. The Korean Cultures

  2.1. The history of the Chungyong, 중용/中庸 in China

2.1.1. The Period of Confucius

2.1.2. The Period of the Book, the Chungyong

2.1.3. After the Period of the Book, the Chungyong

2.2. The Chungyong in Korea

2.2.1. Transmittal to Korea

2.2.2. The Chungyong in the Korean Society

2.2.3. The Chungyong in the Korean Contemporary Study

2.2.3.1. The Specific Character of the Chungyong

2.2.3.2. The Chunghwa, 중화/中和, and the Chungyong, 중용/中庸

2.2.3.3. The Synonyms of the Chungyong

2.2.4. The Chungyong in the Korean Religion’s Study

  2.2.4.1. Comparing the Chungyong, 중용/中庸, of Confucianism and the Chungdo, 중도/中道, of Buddhism

  2.2.4.2. Comparing the Chungyong, 중용/中庸, of Confucianism and the Concept of Indifference in the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Loyola

  2.3. The Chungyong as Humility, Moderation, and Equilibrium and Harmony

  2.3.1. The Analects of Confucius .

  2.3.1.1. Humility

  2.3.1.2. Moderation

  2.3.1.3. Equilibrium and Harmony

  2.3.2. The Chungyong (the Doctrine of the Mean)

  2.3.3. The Chungyong and the Harmony Spirituality as the Spirituality of the Small Christian Community in Asia

  2.4. The “Jocham”, 조참/朝參 (the Morning Conference)

  2.5. The Contemporary Korean Decision Making Process

 

Chapter 3. The Church Traditions and Theological Teachings

  3.1. The Ecclesiology

  3.1.1. The Ecclesiologies of the Second Vatican Council

    3.1.1.1. Jesus, the Kingdom of Heaven, and the Church

      3.1.1.2. The Church in the Second Vatican Council

  3.1.2. The Images of the Church in the Second Vatican Council

    3.1.2.1. The Church as People of God

    3.1.2.2. The Church as Body of Christ

      3.1.2.3. The Church as Temple of the Holy Spirit

  3.1.3. Models of the Church in the Second Vatican Council

  3.1.3.1. The Church as Sacrament

  3.1.3.2. The Church as Herald

  3.1.3.3. The Church as Community of Disciples

  3.1.3.4. The Church as Suffering servant of the Lord

  3.1.3.5. The Church as Communion

    3.1.3.5.1. Vatican II, the Extraordinary Synod, and the Sacred Con­gregation for the Doctrine of Faith

    3.1.3.5.2. Recent Communion Ecclesiology Studies

  3.1.4. The Parish Pastoral Council in the Code of Canon Law after the Second Vatican Council

  3.2. The New way of being Church, Community of Communities

  3.2.1. The Base Ecclesial Community and Small Christian Community in the Magisterial Documents

  3.2.2. The Basic Ecclesial Community in Latin America

  3.2.3. The Small Christian Community in Africa

  3.2.4. The Small Christian Community of the Lumko Institute

  3.3. Ecclesia in Asia

  3.3.1. The Federation of Asian Bishop’ Conference (FABC)

  3.3.2. The Pastoral Letters and Official Documents of the Archbishop of the Seoul Archdiocese

 

Chapter 4. The Decision Making Process

  4.1. The Principal Conclusions of Each Chapter

  4.1.1. The Experience: The Changing Korean Pastoral Policy

  4.1.2. The Culture: The Korean Cultures

  4.1.3. The Tradition: The Church Tradition and Theological Teachings

  4.2. The Co-relative dialogues on four elements

    4.2.1. The Appropriate Form of the Decision Making Process

    4.2.2. The Participants of the Decision Making Process

  4.2.3. The New Model of the Decision Making Process

  4.2.4. The Variables of the Decision Making Process

 

Chapter 5. The Pastoral Response

  5.1. The Method of the Decision Making Process

  5.2. The General Principles of the Participant to Solve the Pastoral Issues

  5.3. The New Model of the Decision Making Process Structure

  5.3.1. The New Structural Concept: Communion and Sharing

  5.3.2. The Parish Pastoral Team

  5.3.3. The Basic Organizations of the New Model

  5.3.4. The General Guidelines for Composing the New Model of the Parish Pastoral Council

  5.4. Benchmarks for the Pastor (The Parish Pastoral Team or the Leader) in Decision Making Process

  5.5. The Communion of the Triune God in the Parish

 

6. Addendum – Survey Questions

 

7. Bibliography

 

<Table>

 1. The General Situation of Korean Catholic Church

 2. Religious, Seminarians, Lay missionaries, and Catechists of the Korean Catholic Church

 3. Catholics and their variation of the Korean Catholic Church

 4. Male and female Catholic and their variation of the Korean Catholic Church

 5. Male Catholics variation by age in the Korean Catholic Church

 6. Female Catholics variation per ages of the Korean Catholic Church

 7. Sacramental Ministry (Baptism) of the Korean Catholic Church

 8. Sacramental Ministry (Others) of the Korean Catholic Church

 

<Chart>

 1. The Existing Model of the Parish Pastoral Council of the Seoul Archdiocese

 2. The Image of the Community of Communities of the Lumko Institute

 3. The Parish Image of Combining the Small Christian Communities with the Organizations

 4. The Existing Discussion and Adjusting Organization of the Parish Pastoral

 5. The Summary of the Differences between the Existing Parish Pastoral Organization and New Parish Pastoral Organization

 6. The Parish Pastoral Council Model which is required in Synod

 7. The Parish Pastoral Council Model of the Taegu Archdiocese

 8. The Parish Pastoral Council Model of the Suwon Diocese

 9. The Parish Pastoral Council Model of the Chuncheon Diocese

10. The Structure of New Parish Pastoral Council

11. The Parish Pastoral Team of New Model of the Parish Pastoral Council

12. The Basic Form 1 of the Basic Organizations of the Parish Pastoral Council – the Small Christian Communities

13. The Basic Form 2 of the Basic Organizations of the Parish Pastoral Council – the Committees

14. The Basic Form 3 of the Basic Organizations of the Parish Pastoral Council – the Cooperation of the Apostolic Organizations

 

<The Principles and Benchmark>

 1. Pastoral Planning

 2. General Principles of the Participant to Solve the Pastoral Issues

 3. General Guidelines for Composing the New Model of the Parish Pastoral Council

 4. Benchmarks for the Pastor (The Parish Pastoral Team or the Leader) in the Decision

    Making Process

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

 

          This thesis project explores how a pastor 1) listens to the lively and active voices and desires of the parishioners through not only the leaders of the organizations but also the leaders of the Small Christian Communities of the parish; and 2) shapes the most effective pastoral decision making process to include consultation with all members who are selected from the Small Christian Communities, the committees, and the other organizations through the integral decision making process which is integrated the Kuyeokjang Hoieui (the meeting of the leaders of the Small Christian Community) and the Parish Pastoral Council.

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE PARISH PASTORAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS

IN THE KOREAN CATHOLIC CHURCH

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1. The Concise Description of the Topic

             The goals of this thesis-project are to research how a pastor 1) listens to the lively and active voices and desires of the parishioners through not only the leaders of the organizations, for example, the Legio Mariae, Cursillo, Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, the Charismatic Movement, the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and Marriage Encounter, etc; but also the leaders of the Small Christian Communities of the parish; and 2) shapes the most effective pastoral decision making process to include consultation with all members who are selected from the Small Christian Communities, the committees, and the other organizations through the integral decision making process which is integrated the Kuyeokjang Hoieui (the meeting of the leaders of the Small Christian Community) and the Parish Pastoral Council. This will allow a pastor to organize the parish to be a community of communion with the faithful.

The Parish Pastoral Council is composed of leaders of several organizations of the parish (see Chart 1). Each of these has a distinct function in the Korean Catholic Church. Pastors often have selected members of the Parish Pastoral Council from the leaders of several organizations of the parish. The Parish Pastoral Council serves as an advisory organization for the pastor. But it is not only the advisor for the pastor; its members are also coworkers and representatives of the pastor in the daily activities of the parish. The Parish Pastoral Council members are appointed by the pastor to advise him on pastoral ministry in each part of the Church (liturgy, education, finance, management and mission, etc). These people have been engaged in the Church for some time. They are professional people who are commissioned by the pastor to serve the Church part time.

 

 

Pastor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assistant Priest

 

 

 

 

 

Religious sisters

 

 

President

 

 

 

 

 

Vice President

 

 

 

 

 

Secretary

 

 

 

 

 

Liturgy dept.

Mission dept.

Education dept.

Finance dept.

Management department

Social Welfare department

Youth dept.

Kuyeok dept.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vice L. & mem-bers

Vice M. &  members

Vice E. &   members

Vice F. &   members

Vice M. & members

Vice S. & members

Vice Y. & members

Vice K. &   members

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Master of Ceremo-ny and

Lector

Legio Mariae

Catechist

 

Facilities

Vincent de Paul

Sunday Primary, Middle, High School

Student

and

Teacher

Kuyeoks and

Pans

 

Bible Study

Management

Funeral Service

Extra-dorina-ry Minis-ters

Marriage Encoun-ter

 

Elder

School

 

Altar Boy

Altar

Flower

 

 

Young Adult Organi-zations

Altar Server

Mother of student

Choir

 

 

<Chart 1 The Existing model of the Parish Pastoral Council of the Seoul Archdiocese>

 

In 1992, Stephen Cardinal Kim Soohwan, the Archbishop of the Seoul Archdiocese (1968-1998), declared the Small Christian Community to be the focus of a pastoral policy toward evangelization for the 21st century of the Seoul Archdiocese of the Korean Catholic Church. He reviewed the contemporary situation of the Seoul Archdiocese at that time. The parish churches were crowded, but the participants did not know each other, so the communion between the pastor and the faithful and among the faithful themselves could not be properly fulfilled. Ten percent of the faithful were working hard through the organizations in the life of the Church. The parish was being managed by only 10 % of the faithful who were members of the various organizations. So Archbishop Kim wanted to reform the Church to be a Community of communities. He wanted to reflect the faithful voices and desires more in the parish decision making process, so more of the faithful could participate positively and actively in the life of the Church. As a result, the Church could become a Community of communities, a communion of communions through the Small Christian Community.

He transformed Kuyeok and Pan, the basic cells of the parish structure to the Small Christian Community. The parish is composed of several Kuyeoks, and Kuyeok is composed of several Pans. In some cases, Kuyeok is the men’s meeting, and Pan is the women’s meeting: in other cases a Kuyeok is just an upper organization which is composed of several Pans. There are 4-5 Pans in one Kuyeok. There are both men’s Kuyeok and women’s Kuyeok, or one Kuyeok which combines men and women according to the situation of each parish of the Seoul Archdiocese. Usually, men have the Small Christian Community meeting as a level of Kuyeok and women have the Small Christian Community meeting as a level of Pan because the numbers of men who participate in Kuyeok’s meeting are smaller than the numbers of women who participate in Pan’s meeting. There are also a few of the Small Christian Community meetings which combine men and women together. There are about 10 persons who participate in each Small Christian Community meeting whether it is a men’s Kuyeok or a women’s Pan. The Seoul Archdiocese has also emphasized the importance of increasing the Small Christian Communities to reflect the many voices of the members of the Small Christian Communities in decision making regarding directions and events undertaken by the parish.

This resulted in great changes in the Seoul Archdiocese. It was a change from an organization of the faithful which is directed and controlled by the parish staff to an organization of the faithful in which they decide themselves how to proclaim the gospel and live with the gospel in their daily lives through the gospel sharing at the Small Christian Community meeting in agreement with the parish pastoral policy. The leaders of the former Kuyeok and Pan had delivered announcements and directions for the parish to the members of Kuyeok and Pan. But the leaders of the new Kuyeok and Pan as the Small Christian Communities are like presidents of the Small Christian Community Pastoral Council in the larger Parish Pastoral Council.

On the one hand, the laity has shown a joy in sharing the Word and has been committed to living according to the Gospel in the process of ongoing evangelical conversion. Fifty percent of the faithful have generally participated positively in Church activities. According to the Seoul Archdiocese priests’ evaluation in the annual meeting in 1997, the Church has been enriching belief and faith, based on the Word, activating lay ministry, applying the Church’s teaching and spirituality, and engaging with the present social living reality of the people through lay ministry and new leadership-service. As Nicolas Cardinal Cheong Jinseok, the Archbishop of the Seoul Archdiocese (1998-present), expressed in a pastoral letter in 1999, “The best result is enriching the belief and activation of lay ministry concentrated on the Word.”

On the other hand, in the parish there were some struggles and conflicts among the Small Christian Community leaders and each organization’s leaders including the Parish Pastoral Council members. The struggles and conflicts concerned, for example, who decides the pastoral direction together with the pastor; who is designated to lead or coordinate certain pastoral ministries and parish events; and how are overlapping activity times, duplicate roles and positions of leaders decided between the Small Christian Communities and the other organizations of the parish. All of them, whether they are the Small Christian Community leaders or the other organizations’ leaders wanted to receive recognition for their efforts for the Church, from officials such as the pastor, and to reflect their opinions in the process of decision making of parish pastoral ministries.

Of course, there were also tendencies that some special organizations in the parish had ups and downs according to whether or not the pastors had an interest in one of the special organizations of the parish or if he was transferred to another position before the Small Christian Community was strongly established in the parish. So, there were so many asking that the pastor should keep to the “Chungyong, 중용/中庸” (equilibrium and harmony), of Confucius, which is one of the practical principles of Korean culture. It is also called “the Chungdo, 중도/中道”, in Buddhist thought. It entails equalization and balance in the pastor’s pastoral interest and love for all organizations of the parish without preference for one side or the other. Today there are also many from the organizations of the Seoul Archdiocese asking why the official pastoral policy of the Korean Catholic Church employs a model of the Church as a community of the communities and yet attends only to the Small Christian Community and not to other small organizational formulations.

             Therefore I want to research how a pastor 1) listens to the lively and active voices and desires of the parishioners through not only the leaders of the organizations but also the leaders of the Small Christian Communities of the parish and 2) shapes the most effective pastoral decision making process to include consultation with all members who are selected from the Small Christian Communities, the committees, and the other organizations through the integral decision making process which is integrated the Kuyeokjang Hoieui (the meeting of the leaders of the Small Christian Community) and the Parish Pastoral Council. This will allow a pastor to organize the parish to be a community of communion with the faithful.

 

 

2. Limitations of the Thesis Project

In this thesis project, I will research:

 1) How the Korean Catholic Church was established

 2) The short history of the Korean Catholic Church.

 3) The Korean Catholic Church’s general review

 4) The background of introducing the Small Christian Community in the Seoul Archdiocese

 5) How the Small Christian Community Movement was introduced and described in the Seoul Archdiocese

 6) What results and assignments came about after the Archdiocese pastoral policy, the Small Christian Community Movement, was introduced in the Seoul Archdiocese which were appeared in the documented experience of the official surveys and the 2007 survey

 7) The recent integral efforts for the structure of the decision making process

 8) How the meaning of the Chungyong, 중용/中庸, in China history developed

 9) The meaning of the Chungyong as a practical principle of Korean culture, the comparing the Chungyong of Confucianism and the Chungdo, 중도/中道, of Buddhism which are major practical principles among literature and studies, and comparing the concept of indifference in the Spiritual Exercise of St. Ignatius of Loyola in Korean religious society.

10) The Chungyong as humility, moderation, and equilibrium and harmony.

11) The Jocham”, 조참/朝參 (the morning Conferences)

12) Contemporary decision making processes in Korean society.

13) The ecclesiologies of the Second Vatican Council.

14) The ecclesiology of Communion.

15) The Parish Pastoral Council in the Code Cannon Law after the Second Vatican Council

16) The New model of the Church, as “community of communities”: the Base Ecclesial Community in Latin America, the Small Christian Community in Africa, of the Lumko Institute and its Problem Solving Scheme as the method of the decision making process, the Small Christian Community in Asia, and the Korean Catholic Church.

17) The Kuyeokjang Hoieui in the Post-Synodal Synodal Letter Toward God with Hope, Seoul Archbishop Nicolas Cardinal Jinseok Chung.

18) What is the appropriate form of the decision making process?

19) Who is part of the decision making process?

20) How the decision making process unfolds?

21) What enables and hinders in the decision making process?

 

I will not:

1) Consider the external relationship with the diocese and other parishes unless it affects directly internal parish pastoral ministry.

2) Consider other elements outside the conflicts between the leaders of the Small Christian Communities and the leaders of the other organizations in the parish.

3) Research the local specific descriptions, the context, the personal capacities, and the abilities of pastors, the Small Christian Community leaders, and the other organizations leaders.

 

 

3. The intended audience of the thesis-project

             This thesis-project is 1) primarily for the pastor to know how he can prevent struggles and conflicts between the Small Christian Communities and the organizations in the parish, but also 2) secondarily for the Parish Pastoral Council members and the Kuyeokjang Hoieui members, the leaders of the local Small Christian Communities, 3) Thirdly for the Small Christian Communities leaders and the organization leaders of the Seoul Archdiocese, and 4) each parish to explore how they will respond to the voices and desires of the parishioners through mutual cooperation. It will also contribute to the Seoul Archdiocese.

 

 

4. The Genesis and the Future of the Thesis-Project

I had experienced the Small Christian Community through the Young Christian Workers Movement when I was an assistant priest and chaplain for laborers in two parishes. I have put my energy as a pastor in three parishes into building and educating the Small Christian Community. The more I put my energy into the Small Christian Community the more the complaints increased from the other organizations of the parish, for example, the Legio Mariae, Cursillo, Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, the Charismatic Movement, the Vincent de Paul Society, and Marriage Encounter, etc.

When I was a chaplain to the laborers of the Southern area of the Seoul Archdiocese and an assistant priest of the parish at the same time, I engaged in the Young Christian Worker team meeting every evening. One team is usually composed of one supervisor and 4-5 laborers. I participated in the Young Christian Worker team meetings of the parish where I served as an assistant priest on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday, and Sunday evenings. I met the other teams of the Young Christian Worker Federation through team reports at the federation meeting on the second and third Wednesday evenings of the month. I met personally the members at Young Christian Worker South Federation Mass on the first Wednesday evening, Young Christian Worker South Federation Taize Prayer on the fourth Wednesday evening, as well as Advent and Lenten retreats, and summer camps. I met the other young adult organizations of the parish where I served as an assistant priest on Sunday or met them through the religious and lay ministers’ gatherings. There were student and teacher organizations of the Sunday primary, middle, and high school, choir, liturgy master of ceremony, Legio Mariae, Bible study, and Vincent de Paul society of young adult organizations of the parish for me to meet with as well.

Young adults of the parish, those who had graduated high school but were not yet married, recognized and supported my engagement with Young Christian Worker members from the bottom of their hearts, but they wanted to receive more pastoral interest and love through direct meetings with me. Sometimes, other young adult organizations of the parish where I served as an assistant priest did not have a good relationship with the Young Christian Workers or laborers because other young adult organizations of the parish could not meet regularly and have as close contact with me as the Young Christian Workers could. There arose conflicts about who was designated to lead or coordinate certain pastoral ministries and the parish events. After I left two parishes where I served as an assistant priest, other young adult organizations of the parish ignored the Young Christian Workers because as Young Christian Workers they were weaker in terms of organizational and political power within the parishes. While I wanted to consider those who were not participating eagerly because of their economic and social situation, like blue collar laborers, and to listen to their voices and desires more, some of the youth organization members who were participating eagerly might feel isolated and alienated in the process of decision making for parish pastoral ministries.

When I was a pastor of the three parishes, I put most of my energy into building and educating the Small Christian Community. I participated in every meeting of the men’s Small Christian Community, Kuyeok, in the parish, so I went to their meeting every evening. They met once a month, but I met with nearly 20-30 Small Christian Communities–there are about 10 persons in each Small Christian Community meeting- every evening. I met the women’s Small Christian Community, Pan, through the religious and the reports of the Pan meetings at the women Small Christian Communities leaders meeting every Saturday morning 10:00 AM. I met the other organizations of the parish, the pastoral council, liturgical organizations, choir, Legio Mariae, Cursillo, Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, Vincent de Paul society, Bible study, RCIA teacher organizations, Marriage Encounter, etc. on Sunday through the religious who directed them at the weekly meeting of pastor, assistant priests, and the religious on every Saturday morning at 9:00 AM. I also met with their leaders personally, too. The organizations of the parish had asked me to participate in their meetings, and wanted to receive directly the pastor’s interests and love.

There are struggles and conflicts regarding who decides the pastoral direction with the pastor among them and who is designated to lead or coordinate certain pastoral ministries and the parish events. It could be a problem for the organizations that other organizations meetings should change their meeting time for their members to participate in the Small Christian Community meeting because their members are also members of the Small Christian Community in the same parish. Not only the meeting time, but also organization activities should be adjusted to the Small Christian Community activities. The important roles which the organizations of the parish had taken in the Church were taken over by the Small Christian Community, from the master of ceremonies of the Sunday liturgy to almost every event and pastoral decision.

These organizations of the parish understand that the Small Christian Community is the foundation of the Church, but at the same time they do not want to feel like outsiders and weak in the Church. Also, the role of each individual organization is very important for inner Church activities. While I wanted to consider those who were not participating eagerly because of their diverse living conditions, and to listen to their voices and desires through the Small Christian Community, I thought some of the faithful who were participating eagerly might feel isolated and alienated in the process of decision making for parish pastoral ministries.

             Therefore I want to research how a pastor 1) listens to the lively and active voices and desires of the parishioners through not only the leaders of the organizations but also the leaders of the Small Christian Communities of the parish and 2) shapes the most effective pastoral decision making process to include consultation with all members who are selected from the Small Christian Communities, the committees, and the other organizations through the integral decision making process which is integrated the Kuyeokjang Hoieui (the meeting of the leaders of the Small Christian Community) and the Parish Pastoral Council. This will allow a pastor to organize the parish to be a community of communion with the faithful.

After this thesis-project, I will apply this knowledge to the new position to which my archbishop will appoint me. If it will be a parish, I will apply this to my pastoral style and type. If it will be a pastoral research center or a pastoral institute, I will extend this for the archdiocesan level.

 

 

5. The Theological and Ministerial Import of the Topic

First, even though the Archdiocese strongly emphasizes the Small Christian Community as the chosen and approved means for evangelization and the communion community, there will be no fulfillment if the parish does not follow it. For the policy of the Archdiocese to be a success, it requires the pastor’s proper efforts in implementing this policy within the parish. The pastor should not only follow the Archdiocesan pastoral policy to build, educate, and nurture the Small Christian Community but also minimize conflicts between the Small Christian Communities and the other organizations which is caused by emphasizing and increasing the importance of the Small Christian Community.

Second, there is another important point for the faithful on how to participate actively in an effective model of the Church. On the one hand, if the pastor puts his energies in the organizations, the parish pastoral policy cannot fully correspond with the general faithful’s pastoral desires and missions. On the other hand, if the pastor puts his energies in Small Christian Communities leaders, the other parish organizations unfortunately feel isolated and alienated in the parish management and events.

Third, the Church’s mission can be minimized as an event limited to merely the organizations centered parish pastoral policy. But the Church’s mission, for example evangelization, formation, and service, is not an event but part of the lives of the faithful. If the faithful live according to the gospel of the Lord, they can evangelize their life, their home, their workplaces, and their social lives not just as a job and work but as their life and essence. This corresponds to the new evangelization through the Small Christian Community movement.

             Therefore, it is very important to research how a pastor 1) listens to the lively and active voices and desires of the parishioners through not only the leaders of the organizations but also the leaders of the Small Christian Communities of the parish and 2) shapes the most effective pastoral decision making process to include consultation with all members who are selected from the Small Christian Communities, the committees, and the other organizations through the integral decision making process which is integrated the Kuyeokjang Hoieui (the meeting of the leaders of the Small Christian Community) and the Parish Pastoral Council. This will allow a pastor to organize the parish to be a community of communion with the faithful.

 

 

6. The Methods Employed to Achieve the Goals of the Thesis-Project

I will follow the praxis-theory-praxis model of practical theology. I will use the model and method of the Whiteheads.[1]

 

Attending:

1) I will explore the resources of experiences:

   (1) The short history and general review of the Korean Catholic Church.

    (2) The background and process of introducing the Small Christian Community in the Seoul Archdiocese.

    (3) The introductory process of the Small Christian Community in the Seoul Archdiocese

    (4) Documented experience: to listen to the people’s positive and negative voices in two ways; first from the official Archdiocesan survey as expressed in documents and research papers;

   (5) Second, reading listening and decision making process, from a documented experience (see 6. addendum) conducted through an email and mail survey of priests and the lay leaders. I will interview five priests (pastors, assistant priests) and nine lay leaders from the Small Christian Communities and the organizations in the Parish Pastoral Councils, resulting in a total of 17 participants from three parishes in which I did not work.

                (6) The recent integral efforts for the structure of the decision making process in the Parish Pastoral Council which is centered the Small Christian Community.

 

2) I will explore the resources of cultures:

   (1) The history of the Chungyong, 중용/中庸 (equilibrium and harmony), in China.

   (2) The meaning of the Chungyong as a practical principle of Korean culture, comparing the Chungyong of Confucianism and the Chungdo, 중도/中道, of Buddhism which are major practical principles among literature and studies, and comparing the concept of indifference in the Spiritual Exercise of St. Ignatius of Loyola in Korean religious society. The Korean leaders are requested by the people in Korean society to keep the Chungyong because giving preference to one organization is not only unjust but also causes complaints and the break down of the unity of the community.

   (3) The Chungyong as humility, moderation, and equilibrium and harmony.

   (4) The Jocham, 조참/朝參, which is not only the rite between the king and his officials but also the site of hearing the people’s voices, discussing, and deciding the government and policy;

   (5) The contemporary general decision making process/es in Korean society, and to discover what it might contribute.

 

3) I will explore the resources of Church traditions and theological teachings through:

(1) The ecclesiologies of the Second Vatican Council and especially the Church as communion by Dennis Doyle, J.–M. R. Tillard, Susan K. Wood, and Christopher Ruddy. Because in order to have communion between the Church and the Triune God, a pastor and faithful and to make the Church as communion.

(2) The Parish Pastoral Council in the Code of Canon Law after the Second Vatican Council.

(3) In the new Church model, the Church as community of communities, the directions and regulations of the Church magisterial documents, the Base Ecclesial Community in Latin America and the Small Christian Community in Africa and of the Lumko Institute and its Problem Solving Scheme as the method of the decision making process which was transmitted to the Asian Church..

(4) Ecclesia in Asia: A new way of being the Church, communion of communities. The New model of the Church, the community of communities (the Small Christian Community), and its vision and goals as set out in the Federation of Asian bishops’ Conferences (FABC) documents and the Pastoral letters and official documents of the Archbishops of the Seoul Archdiocese. The Kuyeokjang Hoieui in the Post-Synodal Synodal Letter Toward God with Hope, Seoul Archbishop Nicolas Cardinal Jinseok Chung.

 

Asserting:

Through the co-relative dialogue of the conversation partners I will assert:

1) What is an appropriate form of decision making process?

2) Who is part of the decision making process?

3) How the decision making process unfolds?

4) What enables and hinders the decision making process?

 

Pastoral Responding:

             I will respond pastorally based on the above research how a pastor 1) listens to the lively and active voices and desires of the parishioners through not only the leaders of the organizations, for example, the Legio Mariae, Cursillo, Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, the Charismatic Movement, the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and Marriage Encounter, etc, but also the leaders of the Small Christian Communities of the parish and 2) shapes the most effective pastoral decision making process to include consultation with all members who are selected from the Small Christian Communities, the committees, and the other organizations through the integral decision making process which is integrated the Kuyeokjang Hoieui (the meeting of the leaders of the Small Christian Community) and the Parish Pastoral Council.

             I will propose Pastoral Planning as the method of the decision making process. I will also propose the General Principles of the participation to solve the pastoral issues, the new model of the Parish Pastoral Council which integrated the decision making process between the Small Christian Communities and the organizations as well as the Kuyeokjang Hoieui, the Small Christian Community, and the Parish Pastoral Council, the General Guidelines for Composing the New Model of the Parish Pastoral Council, and Benchmarks for the Pastor (The Parish Pastoral Team or the leader) in the decision making process. These will allow a pastor to organize the parish towards being a community of communion with the faithful.

 

 

7. An Outline of the Various Chapters and Their Content

 

Introduction

 

Chapter 1. The Changing Korean pastoral policy

I will research the short history and general review of the Korean Catholic Church. I will also review the experience of the changing Seoul Archdiocese Pastoral policy regarding the Small Christian Community Movement. In 1992, Cardinal Kim, the Archbishop of the Seoul Archdiocese, addressed the Small Christian Community as a pastoral policy for evangelization toward the 2000s in the Seoul Archdiocese. He reviewed the present situation of the Seoul Archdiocese at that time.

I want to hear these positive and negative results and assignments from the official Archdiocese survey and expressed in documents and research papers. The people’s voices which are of concern for listening and decision making are added from a documented experience through a survey (see 6. addendum) that was e-mailed to priests and members of the laity.

I will research the recent integral efforts for the structure of the decision making process to solve the struggles and the conflicts between the Small Christian Community and the organizations as well as the Kuyeokjang Hoieui, the Small Christian Community, and the Parish Pastoral Council.

 

Chapter 2. The Korean Cultures

             I will research the Chungyong, 중용/中庸 (equilibrium and harmony) of Confucius from the perspective that a pastor should not give a preference for listening and deciding to one organization but embrace all the faithful.

             1) The history of the Chungyong; how the meanings developed in China,

             2) The meaning of the Chungyong as a practical principle of Korean culture, the comparing the Chungyong of Confucianism and the Chungdo, 중도/中道, of Buddhism which are major practical principles among literature and studies, and comparing the concept of indifference in the Spiritual Exercise of St. Ignatius of Loyola in Korean religious society.

             3) The Jocham, 조참/朝參 (the Morning Conferences).

         4) The contemporary Korean decision making process.

 

Chapter 3. The Church Traditions and Theological Teachings

             I will explore how to speak to the people’s desire with the light of the Gospel:

             1) The ecclesiologies of the Second Vatican Council, the Church images: the People of God, the Body of Christ, the Temple of the Holy Spirit, the Church models; as Sacrament, as Herald, as Community of Disciples, as Suffering Servant of the Lord, as Communion which directly relate to the Small Christian Community among several images and models of the Second Vatican Council on a view of the communion and the participation of the laity.

             2) The Parish Pastoral Council in the Code of Canon Law after the Second Vatican Council.

             3) In the new Church model, the Church as community of communities, the directions and regulations of the Church magisterial documents, the Base Ecclesial Community in Latin America and the Small Christian Community in Africa and of the Lumko Institute and its Problem Solving Scheme as the method of the decision making process which was transmitted to the Asian Church..

             4) Ecclesia in Asia: A new way of being the Church, communion of communities. The New model of the Church, the community of communities (the Small Christian Community), and its vision and goals as set out in the Federation of Asian bishops’ Conferences (FABC) documents and the Pastoral letters and official documents of the Archbishops of the Seoul Archdiocese. The Kuyeokjang Hoieui in the Post-Synodal Synodal Letter Toward God with Hope, Seoul Archbishop Nicolas Cardinal Jinseok Chung.

 

Chapter 4. The Parish Pastoral Decision Making Process

I will co-relatively discuss with the dialogue partners:

1) What is an appropriate form of the decision making process?

2) Who is part of the decision making process?

3) How the decision making process unfolds?

4) What enables and hinders in the decision making process?

 

Chapter 5. The Pastoral Response

             I will respond pastorally based on the above research how a pastor 1) listens to the lively and active voices and desires of the parishioners through not only the leaders of the organizations, for example, the Legio Mariae, Cursillo, Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, the Charismatic Movement, the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and Marriage Encounter, etc, but also the leaders of the Small Christian Communities of the parish and 2) shapes the most effective pastoral decision making process to include consultation with all members who are selected from the Small Christian Communities, the committees, and the other organizations through the integral decision making process which is integrated the Kuyeokjang Hoieui (the meeting of the leaders of the Small Christian Community) and the Parish Pastoral Council.

             I will propose Pastoral Planning as the method of the decision making process and the General Principles of the participation to solve the pastoral issues. I will also propose the new model of the Parish Pastoral Council which integrated the decision making process between the Small Christian Communities and the organizations as well as the Kuyeokjang Hoieui, the Small Christian Community, and the Parish Pastoral Council, the General Guidelines for Composing the New Model of the Parish Pastoral Council, and Benchmarks for the Pastor (The Parish Pastoral Team or the leader) in the decision making process. These will allow a pastor to organize the parish towards being a community of communion with the faithful.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1. The Changing Korean Pastoral Policy

 

In this Chapter, I will research the short history of the Korean Catholic Church and her special distinctions: the laity’s establishment; the existence of a faith community before there were missionaries; the baptized before there were missionaries; and the martyrs before there were missionaries. In addition, I will research the general review of the Korean Catholic Church. This research can show that the Korean Catholic Church was born and grew by the enthusiastic devotion of the laity. In addition, it can also show that the Korean Catholic Church has searched and pastorally responded to the signs of the times in Korean society.

I will also research the background and the situation of the Seoul Archdiocese when the Small Christian Community was introduced in 1992. Stephen Cardinal Soohwan Kim changed Kuyeoks and Pans, which are the area cells of the parish, into Small Christian Communities for the Church to live according to the values of the Gospel in 1992. He wanted the Church to change from exterior to interior growth. This research can show what the motivation and intention of introducing the Small Christian Community Movement were in the Seoul Archdiocese.

I will research the introductory process of the Small Christian Community Movement in the Seoul Archdiocese. The Small Christian Community Movement which was transmitted into the Seoul Archdiocese is from the Lumko Institute of Africa. It was transmitted through the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences. This research can show how the Small Christian Community Movement started, processed, and developed in the Seoul Archdiocese and the Korean Catholic Church until today.

I will research the positive and negative results of introducing the Small Christian Community in the Seoul Archdiocese as a documented experience which was explicated in surveys of dioceses and institutes. In addition, it also shows the struggles and the conflicts between the Small Christian Communities and organizations as well as between the Parish Pastoral Council and the Kuyeokjang Hoieui, the Small Christian Communities.

           I took a survey (see 6. addendum) of three pastors, two assistant priests, six lay members of the Parish Pastoral Council which is representative of the Small Christian Communities, and six lay members of the Parish Pastoral Council which is representative of the organizations, for a total of 17 persons of three parishes of three dioceses from October of 2007 to January of 2008. I aimed to hear the people’s voices which are of concern for listening and decision making. I added to a documented experience through a survey that was e-mailed and mailed to the priests and the laity. The survey can show what the relation between the Small Christian Communities and the organizations is. In addition, the survey can explore how the pastor and the Parish Pastoral Council listen to parishioners’ opinions, how they proceed from parish pastoral issues to the decision making, and what the appropriate method is to listen to the parishioners’ opinions.

     I will research several efforts to solve the struggles and conflicts between the Small Christian Communities and organizations as well as between the Parish Pastoral Council and the Kuyeokjang Hoieui, the Small Christian Communities. Many dioceses and the Pastoral Institute of Seoul Archdiocese endeavor to integrate the structure of the decision making process. I will research the models of some dioceses to compare how they process the decision making. This research can help the Korean Catholic Church to overcome the struggles and the conflicts between the Small Christian Communities and organizations as well as between the Parish Pastoral Council and the Kuyeokjang Hoieui, the Small Christian Communities, using an integral structure of the decision making process.

These research can help what appropriate form in the decision making process, who part of the process of decision making is, how the decision making process unfolds, and how the process of decision making enables and hinders in the decision making process.

 

 

1.1. The Korean Catholic Church

In this section, I will research the short history of the Korean Catholic Church and her special distinctions: the laity’s establishment; the existence of a faith community before there ware missionaries; the baptized before there ware missionaries; and the martyrs before there ware missionaries. It was the laity centered Church. In addition, I will research the general review of the Korean Catholic Church. This research can show that the Korean Catholic Church was born and grown by the enthusiastic devotion of the laity. In addition, it can also show that the Korean Catholic Church has searched and pastorally responded to the signs of the times in Korean society.

I want this research to show what are the distinctive characteristics of the Korean Catholic Church through her short history and the present general review of her because it is important for the pastor to know them, what are the experiences through them, and who are his partners in the decision making process of the parish pastoral issues. The research of this section will prepare the dialogue for the decision making process in the parish to select the participants of the decision making process (4.2.2) in the Chapter 4. The Parish Pastoral Decision Making Process.

 

1.1.1. A Short History of the Korean Catholic Church[2]

1.1.1.1. The Introductory Period (1777-1791)

The Korean Catholic Church was not proclaimed by missionaries but established by laymen’s seeking themselves. The Korean Catholic Church was sought and believed by the Southern Scholars who studied the truth later in Lee’s dynasty (1392-1910). They had studied the foundation theory of Confucianism, Sung Confucianism, 성리학/性理學, which is the foundation theory of the Confucianism of China, at the small hermitage, the Cheonchinam, 천진암/天眞岩[3], of the Buddhism temple, Chueosa, 주어사/ 走魚寺, which is near the city of Seoul[4] in 1777, and started Catholicism which was called the Western Theory with the scholar ‘Byuk Lee’, 이벽/李蘗 (1754-1785).[5]

The Korean Catholic Church already had the faith community before there were missionaries. In this seminar, Kanghakhoi, 강학회/講學會, they had studied with the book, ‘Chonju sirui’, 천주실의/天主實義[6], of Fr. Matthew Ricci, 마태오 리치 신부 (1552-1610),[7] who preached in China. It was introduced in 1603 from China. It is the principles of Catholicism and the Sirhak thinkers who initially took an interest in the new religion. These books were written as complementary[8] to Confuicianism. They had prayed regularly during study. And they wrote a poem to explain easily for the general person. After the scholar Seunghoon Lee, 승훈/李承薰 (1756-1801), was baptized firstly as a Peter in China in 1784, he returned and baptized many persons in Korea.

The Korean Catholic Church had a baptized believer before there were missionaries. The Korean Catholic Church was established by baptism of Seunghoon Lee. And they gathered in ‘Myoungreibang’, 명례방/明禮方, which was the home of Thomas Beomwoo Kim, 김범우/金範禹 who was the middle class of Lee’s Dynasty; and is presently the Myoungdong Cathedral of the Seoul Archdiocese) and shared their faith. Because they didn’t know much about Catholicism, they made a hierarchy, Fake Hierarchy, themselves, and said the Mass and celebrated the Confession and the Sacraments. But they acknowledged it was false, and then sought a missionary.

 

1.1.1.2. The Persecution Period (1791-1886)

The Korean Catholic Church already had a martyr before there were missionaries. There were martyrs who were persecuted for the faith in the Korean Catholic Church before the first missionary entered in Korea. Paul Jichoong Youn, 윤지충/尹持忠 (1759-1791), and James Sangyoun Kwon, 권상연/權尙然 (1751-1791), wanted funeral according to the Catholic style but their families and government put them to death, so they were martyred in 1791.

The Korean Catholic Church was persecuted four notable times. Fr. Moonmo Ju, 주문모/周文謨 (the first Chinese missionary in Korea), and virgin couple John Choongcheol Ryu, 유중철/柳重哲 (1779-1801: He got married with Soonyi Lee, but kept the virginity and martyred), and Lugalda Soonyi Lee, 이순이/李順梨 (1781-1801) and 300 believers in 1801 and Korean first chairman of layman, ‘Paul Hasang Chong’, 정하상/丁夏祥 (1795-1839: Seminarian, First president of the laity), and first Korean Catholic bishop ‘Lawrence Imbert’[9] and 150 believers in 1841, Korean first priest, ‘Andrew Taegon Kim’, 김대건/金大建 (1821-1846: who was ordained at Sanghai in 1845) in 1846, and the fourth Korean Catholic bishop ‘Simeon Berneux’[10] and ‘Joseph Jugi Chang’, 장주기 (1802-1866), who is the lord of first seminary building, ‘Luke Seokdu Hwang’, 황석두/黃錫斗 (1812-1866: President of laity) and many believer martyred in 1866~1873. 103 believers among these martyrs were canonized as saints by Pope John Paul II in 1984.

Later politicians in the Lee dynasty protected their political power to punish Catholic believers as sinners and killed them. First, politicians argued against other politicians and took and strengthened political power, then they killed other politicians to punish Catholics. Second, Lee Dynasty strictly separated persons as a man, woman, elder, younger, and high, middle, low class. Because Catholics called each other brothers and sisters except God is the only Father, they were assumed to be a group seeking to destroy the society, so they were excluded. Third, because the mission societies of the Church didn’t understand exactly oriental culture and customs, they misunderstood the Chesa, 제사/祭祀 (ancestor veneration)[11], as an idolatry and condemned it, so the persecution against them was strengthened (Ancestor veneration is now accepted by Rome).

The Korean Catholics made a faith town, ‘Kyowoochon’, 교우촌/敎友村, and shared and helped each other during persecution times. Despite strong persecution, Catholics were martyred for God joyfully. Meanwhile the Korean Catholic Church made more faith towns, ‘Kyowoochon’, and gathered and continued to proclaim during the persecution period. The French missionary, Charles H. Dallet, wrote in his book, the History of the Korean Catholic Church, that in those times there was no man who died of hunger because they shared food with each other even though they were deprived of their all properties and rights.

 

1.1.1.3. The Right for Free Choice of Religion (1886-)

After long persecution, the Korean Catholic Church acquired the right of free choice of the religion by the contract between Korea (king Kojong, 고종/高宗, of the Lee Dynasty) and the French, 한불수호조약/韓佛守護條約, on June 4, 1886. The Korean Church that was grown on the martyr’s blood tried to be a light in Korean society through culture (publishing, eradication of illiteracy); education (primary, middle, high schools, universities, and technical centers); medicine (midwife houses, hospitals, free hospitals, hospitals for industrial disasters); charities (orphanages, nursing homes, free food, homes for the disabled); social services (counseling agencies for workers, dormitories for workers, labor pastoral centers, justice and peace committees), and endeavors for human rights and building the democratic society in 1970s Korea. From the opening period of the nation to the world until now, the Korean Catholic Church has searched for “what Jesus wants us to do” and responded to the needs of the changing society. The Korean Church follows the Lord’s will with strong faith and love to the Lord.

 

 

1.1.2. General Review of the Korean Catholic Church (2006)[12]

1.1.2.1. General Situation of the Korean Catholic Church

 

             Section

Diocese

Area ()

Population

Catholics

Bishops

Priests

Parishes

Missions

 

1

Seoul

605

10,181,166

1,329,842

6

955

215

183

 

2

Chuncheon

12,079

1,166,008

74,144

1

110

54

46

 

3

Daejeon

9,140

3,476,805

225,560

2

266

111

76

 

4

Inchon

1,099

4,186,389

407,616

2

263

104

29

 

5

Suwon

5,371

6,914,941

672,803

2

386

173

28

 

6

Wonju

8,931

929,693

65,556

1

96

42

49

 

7

Uijeongbu

2,564

2,615,839

187,777

1

182

59

6

 

8

Daegu

9,129

4,458,647

427,868

2

435

147

84

 

9

Pusan

3,267

5,446,653

399,249

3

325

106

17

 

10

Cheongju

5,768

1,324,815

137,344

1

147

64

64

 

11

Masan

9,054

2,466,613

155,432

2

159

67

66

 

12

Andong

10,782

772,843

45,732

2

79

35

72

 

13

Kwangju

12,575

3,384,571

314,512

3

264

109

75

 

14

Jeonju

8,055

1,881,840

174,780

1

178

83

93

 

15

Jeju

1,848

561,695

63,575

2

37

24

9

 

16

Military

 

 

89,715

1

(82)

83

192

 

17

Abroad

 

 

 

 

92

 

 

 

 

Adjustment

-590

-144,249

-3,272

 

 

 

 

 

Total

99,687

49,624,269

4,768,242

32

3,974

1,476

1,089

 

 

 

 

1.1.2.2. Religious, Seminarians, Lay missionaries, and Catechists

 

      Section

Diocese

Male Religious

Female R.

Semi-narian

Lay Missionary

Catech-ist

Unit

Member

Unit

Member

 1

Seoul

31

556

71

2,301

258

2

 

 2

Chuncheon

8

29

23

251

17

 

3

 3

Daejeon

8

33

29

555

156

2

183

 4

Inchon

14

113

41

577

149

1

583

 5

Suwon

16

138

41

1,167

165

7

337

 6

Wonju

3

5

18

246

20

 

 

 7

Uijeongbu

8

24

22

155

34

 

 

 8

Daegu

6

115

27

1,119

153

 

508

 9

Pusan

10

42

35

831

122

 

 

10

Cheongju

5

76

23

402

77

 

 

11

Masan

6

43

28

309

47

1

83

12

Andong

2

8

21

190

20

 

 

13

Kwangju

12

111

29

591

87

19

178

14

Jeonju

3

3

29

336

59

1

212

15

Jeju

4

7

14

107

16

6

 

16

Military

 

 

7

25

 

 

 

17

Abroad

20

141

60

608

 

 

 

Total

46

1,444

106

9,770

1,380

39

2,087

 

 

 

1.1.2.3. Catholics and their Variation of the Korean Catholic Church

 

       Section

 

 Diocese 

Catholics

Increase

Decrease

2005

2006

Variation

Baptism

Immigra-tion

Total

Death

Emigra-tion

Total

 

1

Seoul

1,303,351

1,329,842

26,491

32,156

93,938

126,094

3,890

95,713

99,,603

 

2

Chuncheon

73,366

74,144

778

1,979

5,028

7,007

551

5,678

6,229

 

3

Daejeon

221,711

225,560

3,849

6,718

18,589

25,307

1,017

20,441

21,458

 

4

Inchon

397,256

407,616

10,360

11,665

26,547